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B O G N O R — BOHEMIA 279 unaffected by, and earlier than, Greek influence ”; and has acquired the surname of the “Athens of South they have generally been identified with Pteria, a place America.” The population is about 125,000. taken by Croesus after he had crossed the Halys Bogra, or Bagura, a town and district of British (Herodotus, i. 76). The city walls, the acropolis, and the palace are of great archseo- India, in the Rajshahi division of Bengal. The town is logical interest. Excavations made on the site by M. Chantre situated on the right bank of the river Karatoya. Populed to the discovery of a number of tablets with cuneiform lation (1881), 6179; (1891), 6584. It possesses a high inscriptions, some in a primitive Cappadocian dialect which has school, two printing-presses, and a public library. not yet been read, and of small objects of interest. The rockThe district of Bogra lies west of the main channel of the sculptures, Yasili Kaya, 1^ miles east of the city, belong to a distinct style of art which has been called “ Hittite,” but many traces Brahmaputra. It contains an area of 1452 square miles. of Assyrian influence survive. It seems probable “that the cult of Population (1881), 734,751 ; (1891), 817,494, showing the great earth-mother (Cybele) and her son (Attis) supplies the an increase of 11 per cent.; average density, 563 persons motive of these reliefs, and that it was dominant in the city per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus below them.” Another view is that the sculptures commemorate an historical event. At Euyuk, about 12 miles north of Boghaz numbered 154,296; Mahommedans, 661,100; Christians, Keui, is a gateway flanked by sphinxes and a series of remarkable 15, of whom 7 were Europeans; “others,” 2083. In sculptures which, like those at Yasili Kaya, represent, according 1901 the population (on a reduced area) was 849,955, to Professor Ramsay, “scenes and figures in the ritual of a showing a further increase of 11 per cent. Land religion which can be traced over the greater part of Asia Minor, revenue and rates (1897-98) were Rs.5,35,327; the modified by local circumstances.” Here also M. Chantre made number of police was 230; the number of boys at interesting discoveries. Humann and Puchstein. Reisen in Kleinasien und Nordsyrien. school (1896-97) was 15,484, being 26'6 per cent, of the —Chantre. Mission en Gappadocie, 1893-94; Recherches archio- male population of school-going age ; the registered deathlogiqucs.—Perrot and Chipiez. Histoire de l’Art en Phrygie.— rate (189/) was 30 per thousand. The former production Hogarth in Murray’s Handbook to Asia Minor. (c. w. w.) of indigo is extinct, and the industry of silk-spinning is Bogrtor, a seaside resort in the Chichester parlia- decaying. There is no town with as many as 10,000 mentary division of Sussex, England, 7 miles S.E. of inhabitants, trade being conducted at riverside marts. Chichester, and 28 W. of Brighton by rail. Besides the Uor are there any metalled roads. The Northern Bengal parish church, there are a Roman Catholic priory and railway runs through a corner of the district for 39 miles, church, and Congregational, Wesleyan, and Methodist on its way north to Darjiling. chapels; also a theatre, assembly rooms, and numerous Boguslav, a town of Western Russia, government convalescent homes, including establishments belonging to the Merchant Taylors’ Company, the Ragged School and 69 miles S.E. of Kieff. It dates from the 12th century, Union, East London Hospital for Children, and the and has a population of 13,000. Machinery works, woollen Surrey Women’s Jubilee Memorial Committee. A pier cloth mills, and distilleries are its leading industries. pavilion and a promenade are other features. Area of Bohain, a town in the arrondissement of Saint urban district, 885 acres; population (1881), 3290 Quentin, department of Aisne, France, 30 miles in direct (1901), 6180. line N. by W. of Laon, on the railway from St. Quentin Bogorodsk, a district town of Central Russia, in to Lille. The Torrents Canal affords communication with the government and 27 miles by rail E.N.E. of Moscow, the Scheldt. Local industry is mainly associated with the near the railway to Nijni, with which it is connected by a production of woollen fabrics, including French cashmeres, branch line. It is built on the bank of the Klyazma gauzes, and various fancy stuffs. Population (1881), 6380 • river, and has several woollen and silk mills. Population, (1901), 6899. 11,210. v Bohemia (German, Bohmen; Bohemian or Czech, Bogota., or Santa Fe de Bogota, the chief town Cechy), a kingdom and crown-land of the Austro-Hunof the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia, South garian monarchy, of whicn it constitutes the most northern America, and the capital of the republic, situated on a part. Population (1869), 5,106,069 (of which it was high tableland 8985 feet above sea-level, on the San estimated that there were 20 Germans to every 32 Slavs) ; Francisco river at its junction with the Rio de Bogota. (1880), 5,560,819 ; (1890), 5,843,094, which is equivalent From Barrancpiilla it is distant, by the nearest traffic to 293 inhabitants per square mile; (1900), 6,318,280. route, 683| miles, communication being by rail to The density of population is greatest in the northern or Facatativa 24 miles, from Facatativa to La Dorada by industrial districts. The proportion of females to males mules 45 miles, from La Dorada to Honda by rail 22 miles, in 1891 was 1071 to 1000 : 62-38 per cent. were Czech and from Honda to Barranquilla, by steamers on the and 36-94 German, 96 per cent. Roman Catholic, 2T7 Magdalena river, 592-|- miles. There is also communica- per cent. Protestant, and D6 per cent. Jews. Next to tion with the Magdalena by an American express service Galicia, Bohemia has the largest population of any Austrian of waggons drawn by horses. A railway is projected to crown-land, amd about 24"45 per cent, of the entire popuZupaquira. Within recent years the city has greatly lation of Austria. In 1896 the marriage-rate was 8"31 ; extended, and occupies an area of about 2| miles in the birth-rate 37-29, or, excluding still-births, 36-04; and length by 1| in breadth. The streets, though narrow, are the death-rate 24"31 per 1000. Of the births 14"41 perwell laid out and well kept, and lighted by electricity. cent. were illegitimate, an increasing ratio. Bohemia There is an excellent water-supply, besides a telephone sends 110 members to the Reichsrath, or central parliaservice and other modern conveniences. A special feature ment in Vienna, 18 of whom are returned by the new are the fine squares in the French fashion adorned with universal suffrage curia; 65 are Czech and 45 German, fountains. In the Plaza Bolivar is a statue of Liberty by including the large landed proprietors of both nationalities. Tenerain, a pupil of Canova, and in the Plaza Santander a Education is provided for by two universities, one German statue of General Santander by Costa of Florence. Among and the other Czech (4178 students in 1897), two polythe public buildings are the palace of San Carlos occupied technics (1227 students), an academy of fine art, a mining by the president of the republic, and the palaces of academy, 4 theological seminaries, 56 gymnasia, 22 realSanto Domingo and San Francisco occupied by Govern- gymnasia, 311 intermediate and 5149 elementary schools ment offices. The university has a high reputation, and (the proportion of Czech and German being as 3 to 2), the city, on account of its appreciation of art and letters, with an average attendance of 98-5 per cent, of all children,