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290

BOLIVIA

patronage both in Church and State. He is assisted by two vice-presidents elected in the same manner and for the same period, and by a cabinet of five ministers appointed by himself as heads of departments of government These ministries are—foreign affairs and worship, government and fomento, finance and industry, justice and public instruction, war and colonization. Local Government. —At the head of each of the eight departments into which Bolivia is divided is a prefect appointed by the president and removable at his pleasure. _ The provinces are governed by sub-prefects, the cantons by justices (corrq^ores), and the country districts by alcaldes. The capital of each department has a municipal council; there are administrative boards m the provincial capitals, and cantonal agents in the villages. The duties ot the municipal authorities relate to public works, municipal taxation, instruction, police, charity, and other matters. The two territories formed in 1890 are controlled by officials called national delegates. Justice. —Justice is administered by a supreme court m the capital, by district courts in the departmental capitals, and by inferior tribunals of several grades. _ , ... . Education. —Primary instruction is gratuitous and obligatory, and is under the care of the municipal authorities. In 1899 there were 692 primary schools, with 1020 teachers and 36,418 pupils. Among these are included about seventy schools tor rural Indians tauedit by parish priests, and about 140 mission schools. I he sum spent annually by the municipalities on primary education amounts to 140,000 bolivianos (£12,720). Secondary education is given in eight colleges, four seminaries, one religious college, and four private lycees. In 1899 there were 115 secondary teachers and 2321 pupils. At Sucre and La Paz there are schools of arts and trades conducted by the Salesian friars ; at Sucre there is besides, a commercial school, and at La Paz a military college. Higher education is given in six universities, at four of which medical science is tau edit. In 1898 the number of students was 2221. The theological faculty, including the seminaries, had 110 students m 1899. Defence.—By laws of 1875 and 1880, every Bolivian citizen fit for service is a soldier, and is required to serve under the colours for two years, but the clergy are exempt, as are also certain others for special reasons. The military force consists of (a) troops of the line, numbering, in 1899, 2560, organized 111 two battalions of infantry, two regiments of cavalry, two regiments of artillery, and garrison troops distributed among the departments ; (6) the reserves, composed of depot corps, with 30,000 men from twenty to twentyfive years of age ; the ordinary and the extraordinary reserve with 40,000 men from twenty-five to forty years of age ; and the terntorial guard, with 10,000 men from forty to fifty years of age. The Of the population 79,000 are whites and 299,500 of mixed total combatant force thus amounts to 82,560. Finance.—The public revenues collected within the republic are European and Indian blood. The rest of the inhabitants are Indians, most1 of whom are semi-civilized, the number of uncivilized being divided into national, departmental, and municipal. The first and estimated at over 240,000. The principal towns of Bolivia are La, second are applied to the ordinary expenses ol government; the Paz, the capital, with 62,000 inhabitants; Cochabamba, 29,500 , third to those of the municipalities. The national revenue is Sucre 27,000; Potosi, 16,000 ; Oruro, 15,000 ; Santa Cruz, 12,000 , derived mainly from customs, monopolies, and taxes on the proTnriia 12 000. Formerly the seat of government passed in rotation duction and export of minerals and ol rubber, while the departto eich of four towns; in 1898 a law was passed making Sucre mental revenues are mainly the proceeds of taxes on land, paid perpetual capital; La Paz protested, claiming the dignity for itself, by natives, on inheritances and legacies, on deeds, and on catt e imports and exports. The expenditure passes through the various and, after a brief war and a change of government, prevailed.. According to the constitution established by a National government ministries. The national and departmental revenues 1895-99, officially stated in silver bolivianos, are given m the subConvention in 1880, Bolivia is a republic, with a repre- for joined table converted into sterling at the rate of eleven bolivianos sentative and democratic form of government. to the £. No corresponding statement of expendituie is accessible. Governlegislative power resides in a National Bevenue. ment ‘ Congress of two chambers, one of senators, Years. Departmental. National. the other of deputies. The Senate consists of sixteen members (two for each department) chosen for six years, £135,140 £374,120 1895 142,320 430,870 of whom one-third retire every two years. Senators must 1896 154,220 505,800 be at least thirty-five years of age, and have an annual 1897 154,220 472,180 1898 income of not less than 800 bolivianos. The Chamber of 159,510 539,910 1899 Deputies contains sixty-nine members chosen for four years of whom one-half are removable every two years. For 1900 the national revenue and expenditure (at the same rate Deputies must be at least twenty-five years of age, and of exchange) were estimated as follows : Branches of Expenditure. have an annual income of not less than 400 bolivianos. Expenditure. Sources of Revenue. Revenue. Both senators and deputies are elected by direct suffrage, £15,000 but electors must possess real property, or an annual £335,420 Legislative . Customs 57,580 138,170 Foreign aff airs, &c. 127,300 income of not less than 200 bolivianos. Congress meets Spirit monopolies 54,540 Government, &c. . 242,990 Silver . annually on 6th August for a session of at least sixty 45,450 Finance, &c. Rubber 36,640 days The executive power is vested in a president chosen 23,630 Justice, instrucTin, copper, bistion for four years by direct and secret popular vote. He is muth 69,210 "W ar, colonization 241,350 not eligible for the succeeding presidential term. He has Various power to make treaties, subject to ratification by Congress ; ! £720,860 Total . £666,420 Total . he is at the head of the military forces; may convoke Congress for extraordinary sessions 3 and has rights of

begins in November or December and continues till April or May. During this time immense quantities of snow tall on the high mountains and violent thunderstorms rage over the Puna. In the winter months, May, June, and July, the weather is of almost unbroken clearness with strong cold winds. In August, September, and October the weather begins to break and showers fall occasionally Theof seasons eastern tovalleys near thedegree. mountains share . in this succession a less marked Geofrw/.—The best account of the geology of Bolivia is that of Mr David Forbes {Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, February 1861). The mass of the Cordillera Real consists of granite, diorite, and crystalline schists, with Silurian and Devonian rocks farther west. Small basin-shaped Carboniferous deposits appear at intervals farther west from Titicaca to Oruro and m the department of Santa Cruz. The Permian formation comes next to the west, and is largely developed and very rich in mineral deposits, ihe coast region is formed of deposits belonging to the Upper Oolitic svstem. The chief region of volcanic activity is the line ot the western Cordillera, though a bed of trachytic tuff is found near La Paz, and some andesite has been observed on the flank ot Illimani. The high plateau is covered by recent alluvial deposits 1500 feet thick near La Paz, which mark the site of a great inland sea, whereof Titicaca and Poopo are the disappearing remnants. It is probable that the whole ot the high region ot Bolivia has risen in recent geological times, and it is perhaps still risingJi-eTald Population.—The area of Bolivia (exclusive of the maritime provinces and Atacama) extends to 734,340 square miles. No complete census of the republic has ever been carried mit but the population is officially estimated at 2,313 /o0. 1 area and population of the eight departments, and of the two territories of the republic are given as follows Population, Area. Departments and Square miles. Population. per square mile. Territories. 6 250,000 39,870 Chuquisaca 3 573,750 171,080 La Paz . 23 485,900 21,420 Cochabamba . 7 365,500 52,090 Potosi 11 230,600 21,330 Oruro 3 94,900 34,600 J Tarija 2 210,800 87,700 ' Santa Cruz 38,700 100,550 j Beni 18,600 13,500 Madre de Dios, Ter. 45,000 192,200 ! Purus, Ter. 734,340 2,313,750 Total