Public Calamit ies.—During the last few years the entire history of Bombay has been sadly affected by plague and famine. Bubonic plague, of a very fatal and contagious nature, first broke out in Bombay city in September 1896, and, despite all the efforts of the Government, quickly spread to the surrounding country. Since that date there have been fluctuations in the mortality, but the disease has never disappeared entirely. From September 1896 to March 1901, a period of four and a half years, the total number of deaths recorded from plague was no less than 335,555. The great cities of Bombay, Karachi, and Poona suffered most severely. A few districts in Gujarat almost entirely escaped ; but the mortality was very heavy in Satara, Thana, Surat, Poona, Kolaba, and in the native states of Cutch, Baroda, Kolhapur, and Palanpur. The only sanitary measure that can be said to have been successful was complete migration, which could only be adopted in villages and smaller towns. Inoculation was extensively tried in some cases. Segregation was the one general method of fighting the disease ; but, unfortunately, it was misunderstood by the people and led to some deplorable outbreaks. In Poona, during 1897, two European officials were assassinated ; the editor of a prominent native paper was sentenced to imprisonment for sedition; and two leaders of the Brahman community were placed in confinement. At Bombay, in March 1898, a riot begun by Mahommedan weavers was not suppressed until several Europeans had been fatally injured. In Nasik district, in January 1898, the native chairman of the plague committee was brutally murdered by a mob. But on the whole the people submitted with characteristic docility to the sanitary regulations of the Government. Bombay, like the Central Provinces, suffered from famine twice within three years. The failure of the monsoon of 1896 caused widespread distress throughout the Deccan, over an area of 46,000 square miles, with a population of 7 millions. The largest number of persons on relief was 301,056 in September 1897 ; and the total expenditure on faminerelief was Rs.l,28.00,000. The measures adopted were signally successful, both in saving life and in mitigating distress. In 1899 the monsoon again failed in Gujarat, where famine hitherto had been almost unknown; and the winter rains failed in the Deccan, so that distress gradually spread over almost the entire presidency. The worst feature was a virulent outbreak of cholera in Gujarat, especially in the native states. In April 1900 the total number of persons in receipt of relief was 1,281,159 in British districts, 566,671 in native states, and 71,734 in Baroda (Sir W. W. Hunter, Bombay, 1885-1890. London, 1892). For 1900-1 the total expenditure on famine relief was nearly 3 crores (say, £2,000,000 sterling); and a continuance of drought necessitated an estimate of 1 crore in the budget of the following year. (j. s. Co.) Bombay City, the capital of Bombay presidency and chief seaport of Western India; situated in 18° 55' N. lat. and 72° 54' E. long. The city stands on an island of the same name, which forms one of a group now connected by causeways with the mainland. It occupies an area of 22 square miles; the population in 1881 was 773,196 ; in 1891 it was 821,764, showing an increase of 6 per cent.; and in 1901 it was 770,843, showing a decrease of 6 per cent., due to the effects of continued plague. Bombay thus falls to the second place, below Calcutta; but it is still the third most populous city in the British empire. Classified according to religion, Hindus in 1891 numbered 543,276; Mahommedans, 155,247 ; Christians, 45,310, of whom 11,294 were Europeans and 4326 Eurasians, leaving 29,690 native converts, mostly Goanese ; Parsis numbered 47,458, more than half the total in all India; Jains (including Buddhists), 25,415; Jews, 5021, nearly half the total in the presidency ; “ others,” 37. 1,824 14 1,633 13 Colleges . Bombay city is the centre of the cotton industry. In 1898 the 466 36,164 388 38,064 Secondary Schools number of cotton-mills was 70, with 19,303 looms and 2,040,409 7,520 434,377 9,572 561,160 Primary Schools spindles, employing about 65,000 hands, and consuming about 2,778 50 2,225 75 Special Schools 2,377,000 cwts. of cotton. The total number of factories of all 2,927 65,737 2,832 70,779 Private Institutions kinds under inspection was 130, employing about 88,000 operatives. Bombay contests with Calcutta the first place in the maritime 10,923 542,036 12,934 672,705 Total trade of India. As the terminus of three railway systems, it serves Western and Central India ; but this region cannot vie in proIf we compare the number of pupils with the estimated population ductiveness with the valley of the Ganges. Bombay’s commerce, of school-going age (15 per cent, of the total population), the like her cotton industry, has suffered severely in recent years from increase in ten years has been from 15-5 to le-fi per cent. Taking drought and plague. The following table gives the value (in tens girls alone, the number at school increased from 52,941 in 1886-87 of rupees) of the foreign imports and exports for the five years, to 82,163 in 1896-97, or by 56 per cent.; while the proportion to 1893-94 to 1897-98 Imports. Exports. the female population of school-going age rose from 3T to 4‘2 per Rx. Rx. cent. A feature in the Bombay system of public instruction is the 1893success with which it has been extended to native states. In 18941896-97, the total number of pupils in native states (not includ1895ing Baroda) was 153,798, of whom 14,182 were girls. _ In 1886-87 1896the total expenditure on education was Rs. 49,95,970, in 1896-97 it 1897was Rs. 73,72,931.
twist, Rx.6,043,332 ; oil-seeds, Rx.5,273,794; opium, Rx.2,203,607 ; cotton piece goods, Rx.1,899,858; raw wool, Rx.1,902,718 ; wheat, Rx. 1,303,693 ; hides, Rx. 919,350 ; other food grains, Rx. 697,220. A significant fact was the decline in trade with the United Kingdom during the ten years ending 1897-98. The imports from the United Kingdom fell by 3 crores of rupees, and their proportion of the total from 73 to 59 per cent. The exports to the United Kingdom fell by 3f crores of rupees, and their proportion of the total from 24 to 16 per cent. Under imports, Germany, Russia, Belgium, and Austria each showed a very large increase ; while under exports the largest increases were to Germany and Japan. Bombay is still the depot for trade with the Persian Gulf and Zanzibar, but this trade is not increasing. The interprovincial trade of Bombay by railway in 1897-98 was valued at Rs.16,71,27,000 for imports, and Rs.14,85,48,000 for exports. Administration.—Including Sind, there are 4 divisions or commissionerships, distributed among 24 districts, each under the charge of a collector, with assistants and deputies. Many of the collectors have political duties in connexion with the numerous native states. The total number of civil and revenue judges is 266, and of magistrates of all sorts 648. In 1898, the total strength of the police (excluding Bombay city, Sind, and Aden) was 15,455 officers and men, being one policeman to every 10 square miles of area and to every 1948 of the population. In addition, there were 2121 railway police. Army.—Since the reorganization of the Indian army in 1894 the Bombay command, under a lieutenant-general, comprises Baluchistan, and parts of Rajputana, Central India, and the Central Provinces, in addition to the Bombay presidency, with headquarters at Poona. It consists of three first-class and five second-class military districts, of which Poona and Bombay alone lie entirely within the presidency. In 1898 the strength of the Bombay command was 14,636 European and 30,103 native troops ; total, 44,739. In addition there were 5710 volunteers. Local Government.—Excluding Bombay city, the number of municipalities in the presidency is 167, with an aggregate^ population of 2,245,000. The total number of municipal commissioners is 2343, of whom 908 are elected. In 1897-98 the aggregate municipal income (excluding loans) was Rs. 47,00,000, of which Rs. 34,68,000 was derived from taxation, the incidence of taxation being nearly Rs.2 per head of population. The aggregate expenditure was Rs.67,00,000, of which Rs.27,36,000 was devoted to public health and convenience, Rs. 6,35,000 to education, Rs.5,34,000 to plague, and Rs.2,48,000 to public safety. The number of district boards is 23, and of taluk or subdivisional boards 205. Almost all of these boards are partly elective. The total number of members is 3538, of whom 1593 are elected. In 1897 - 98 the aggregate income of all the local boards was Rs.44,94,000, of which Rs.27,34,000 was derived from rates. The aggregate expenditure was Rs. 47,65,000, of which Rs.22,55,000 was devoted to public works, Rs. 15,59,000 to education, and Rs.3,19,000 to medical. The following is the net revenue and expenditure of Bombay for 1897-98 (in tens of rupees), distributed under the three heads of imperial, provincial, and local:—Net revenue, imperial, Rx.8,414,539 ; provincial, Rx.2,931,442 ; local, Rx.332,748 ; total, Rx.11,6/8,729. Net expenditure, imperial, Rx.4,966,446 ; provincial, Rx.2,876,452; local, Rx.387,738 ; total, Rx.8,230,636. Of the total revenue, Rx.3,678,082 was derived from land, Rx.2,287,245 from salt, Rx.1,904,348 from customs, and Rx.1,033,637 from excise. Education.—The following table gives the chief statistics of education in Bombay for the years 1886-87 and 1896-97 :— 1S86-87. Schools. Pupils. Schools. Pupils