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298

BONAPARTE —BONHEUE,

marriage. She has since continued to reside in Paris, Naples, and became secretary of Luigi Carlo Farini during distinguished as the friend and patron of men of letters and the latter’s lieutenancy, but, in 1865, assumed contemporaneously the editorship of the Perseveranza of Milan artists, and herself displaying no mean skill as a painter. Able man though he was, Prince Napoleon was disquali- and the chair of Latin literature at Florence. Elected fied by character and temperament from success in public deputy in 1860 he became celebrated by the biting wit of life. His democratic convictions, however sincere, coexisted his speeches, while, as journalist, the acrimony of his with a despotic temper ; his independence, in itself highly polemical writings made him a redoubtable adversary. honourable to him, became in its excess disdain for public Though an ardent supporter of the historic Right, and, as opinion and offensive brusqueness ; while despising princely such, entrusted by the Lanza Cabinet with the defence of affectations, he failed to manifest princely dignity or princely the law of guarantees in 1870, he was no respecter of munificence; and his private life was by no means ex- persons, his caustic tongue sparing neither friend nor foe. emplary. It would, moreover, have been difficult for any Appointed minister for public instruction in 1873, he, one to have resisted the constant stream of calumny directed with feverish activity, reformed the Italian educational against him by the absolutist and clerical sections of the Im- system, suppressed the privileges of the university of perialist party ; he was constantly taxed with disloyalty to Naples, founded the Vittorio Emanuele library in Rome, the emperor, and yet, when his proceedings are impartially and prevented the establishment of a Catholic university reviewed, he appears to have opposed all the mistakes in the capital. Upon the fall of the Right from power in that proved fatal to the dynasty, and to have invariably 1876 he joined the Opposition, and, with characteristic given the soundest advice. In the character of his in- vivacity, protracted during two months the debate on tellect, as in personal appearance, he bore an extraordinary Baccelli’s University Reform Bill, securing, single-handed, resemblance to the first Napoleon, possessing the same its rejection. A bitter critic of King Humbert, both in marvellous lucidity of insight, and the same gift of in- the Perseveranza and in the Nuova Antologia, he was, in fallibly distinguishing the essential from the non-essential. 1893, excluded from court, only securing re-admission He was a warm friend of literature and art, and in a private shortly before his death, on 22nd October 1895. In station would have achieved high distinction as a man of foreign policy a Francophil, he combated the Triple Alliance, and took considerable part in the organization of letters. (R- G-) the inter-Parliamentary peace conference. (h. w. s.) Bonaparte, Napoleon Eugene Louis Bonham, a city of Texas, U.S.A., capital of Fannin Jean Joseph, Prince Imperial (1856-1879), son of the Emperor Napoleon III. and the Empress Eugenie, was county, in the N.E. part of the state, on a line of the born at Paris 16th March 1856. He received a careful Texas Pacific railway, and an important point in the shipeducation, and was considered a youth of promise. In ment of cotton. Population (1890), 3361 ; (1900), (5042). the Franco-German war of 1870 he went to the front, Bonheur, Marie Rosalie, known as Rosa though aged only fourteen, and much dynastic capital was Bonheur (1822-1899), one of the most famous women made of his “ baptism of fire ” and his having discharged artists of the 19th century, was born at Bordeaux, in a mitrailleuse at the battle near Saarbrucken. So soon, France, on the 22nd March 1822. She was of Jewish however, as the campaign threatened to become disastrous origin. Jacques Wiener, the Belgian medallist, a native he was sent to Brussels, and speedily joined his mother in of Venloo, says that he and Raymond Bonheur, Rosa’s England, residing at Chislehurst. Upon his father’s death father, used to attend synagogue in that town ; while in 1873 he was proclaimed by the imperialist party as another authority asserts that Rosa used to be known in Napoleon IV., passing under the title of count de Pierre- common parlance by the name of Rosa Mazeltov (a Hebrew fonds. He had already, in 1872, entered the military term for “good luck,” Gallice Bonheur). She was the academy at Woolwich, where he made fair progress in his eldest of four children, all of whom were artists : studies, and gained the esteem of his teachers and com- Auguste (1824-1884) painted animals and landscape; panions by his amiable disposition. Desirous of acquiring Juliette (1830-1891), “honourably mentioned” at the military experience, and of recommending himself to the exhibition of 1855; Isidore, born in 1827, a sculptor French nation by exploits in the field, he volunteered for of animals. Rosa at an early age was taught to draw service in the Zulu war, and departed for South Africa on by her father (who died in 1849), and he, perceiving her 27th February 1879. His period of military service was very remarkable talent, permitted her to abandon the short indeed, for he was killed in a reconnaissance on 1st business of dressmaking, to which, much against her will, June. His remains were brought home, and interred with she had been put, in order to devote herself wholly to art. those of his father at Chislehurst. His death was an event From 1840 to 1845 she exhibited at the salon, and five times of considerable political importance, virtually destroying the received a prize; in 1848 a medal was awarded to her. Bonapartist party in France by transferring its leadership Her fame dates more especially from the exhibition of to the unpopular Prince Napoleon Jerome. The Prince 1855; from that time Rosa Bonheur’s works were much Imperial’s amiable character, and the romantic interest sought after in England, where collectors and public attaching to him, would have made him a formidable pre- galleries competed eagerly for them. What is chiefly tender in the event of any internal trouble menacing the remarkable and admirable in her work is that, like her stability of the Republic. (R- g-) contemporary, Brascassat, she represents animals as they Bonghi, Ruggero (1828 1895), Italian politi- really are, as she saw them in the country. She gives cian, was born at Naples, 20th March 1828. Exiled from us a picture of real life, instead of the often artificial Naples in consequence of the movement of 1848, he took presentment of rural scenes and incidents of animal life. refuge in Tuscany, whence he was compelled to flee to Her gift of accurate observation was, however, allied to a Turin on account of a pungent article against the certain dryness of style in painting; she often failed to Bourbons. At Turin he resumed his philosophic studies give a perfect sense of atmosphere. On the other hand, and his translation of Plato, but in 1858 refused a the anatomy of her animals is always faultlessly true. professorship of Greek at Pavia, under the Austrian There is nothing feminine in her handling; her treatment Government, only to accept it in 18o9 from the Italian is always manly and firm. Of her many works, we may Government. In 1860, with the Cavour party,. he note the following — “ Ploughing in the Nivernais ” opposed the work of Garibaldi, Crispi, and Bertani at (1848), in the Luxembourg gallery (see Plate); “The