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ILLUSTRATION —BOOK-PLATES unless the action is cut off or controlled by a foot-lever or pedal. over and press out the remaining pieces of cloth. Of course each This machine is probably the type of the book-sewing machine of piece of cloth is cut across at the proper point before the turning the future, as it is much quieter to work than the other, and up begins. This machine is capable of producing 1200 cases m an of any size that the machine will take. although the inner threads are too bulky to be quite satisfactory, hour Wiring Machine.—This executes a cheap form of sewing for this is not a serious matter like the cutting of the upper and lower edges of the back already described, and, moreover, is probably keeping together thin parts of periodicals or tracts, and is simple capable of being either improved away or so minimized that it will in construction and use. It drives a short wire pm, bent at right angles at each end, through the folds of the sections of a book or become of small importance. Rounding and Backing Machine.—An American machine for through the entire thickness, sideways, after the manner of stabbing. rounding and backing sewn books has been placed on the market. The proiecting ends, when through the substance of the paper, are and flattened so as to grip firmly. The metal used for It requires a rather elaborate and very careful setting of several bent over pins was at first very liable to rust, and consequently did parts to the exact requirement of each size to be worked. The these damage to the paper near it, but this defect has now been sewn book with the back glued is caught in a clip and forced between much remedied. At the same time the principle of using hard two tight rollers, the result being that the hitherto flat back is largely automatically turned into a rounded shape (Figs. 1 and 2). The book metal wire instead of flexible hempen thread is essentially vicious, is then drawn forward, by a continuance of the onward movement, and should only be used as a temporary expedient for publications little value. -if-L.iluntil it reaches the rounding plate, which is a block of steel with a of Blocking Machine (Fig. 5).—The machines now used for blocking polished groove a little larger than the size required. I his roundupon book-covers are practically the same as have been ing plate moves within a small arc by means of heavy counter- designs for many years. Several small improvements have been weights, and on the back of the book being strongly pressed employed introduced as to better inking of the rollers for colour work, and against it, it receives the permanent form of the groove cut in it, better heating of the blocks used for gold work. A blocking press at the same time a strong grip on each side of the book causes the is now, in consequence of the size of many of the blocks, a large and cumbersome machine. The block itself is fixed. fb'T'ily 11} a f stroii< metal bed, and a movable table in front of it is fitted with gauges which keep the cover exactly in its right place. For gold work the block is kept at the proper temperature by means of gas lets and the cover being properly overlaid with gold leaf is passed, on its table, directly under the block and then pressed steadily upwards against it, lowered, drawn out, and the supeifluous gold rubbed off. The same process is followed in the case of colour blocks, only now the block need not be heated, but is inked by means’ of a roller for each impression. A separate printing is necessary for each colour. These printings always require great care on the part of the operator, who has to watch the working of each pull very carefully, and if any readjustment is wanted, to make it at once, so that it is difficult to estimate at what rate they can be made. In the matter of gold blocking there must be great care exercised in the matter of the heat of the block, for if it is too hot the gold will adhere where it is not wanted, and it too cool it will not adhere where it is required. Great nicety is also necessary as to the exact pressure required as well as the precise number of moments during which the block should be m contact with the gold, which is fastened to the cloth or leather by means oi the solidification by heat of egg albumen Blocking presses are mainly of German make, but Scottish and English presses are also largely used. Authorities.—Gruel (L.). Manuel de l amateur de Rclieui es. Paris, 1887.—Zaehnsdorf (J. W.) The Art of Book-binding, 2n< ed London, 1890.—Prideaux(S. T.). Historical Sketch of Bookbinding. London, 1893.—Thoinan (E.). _ Les Reheurs Francis. Paris, 1893.—Horne (H. P.). The Binding of Books. London 2894 Fletcher (W. Y.). English Book-bindings in the British Museum. London, m.—Foreign Book-bindings in the British Fig. 5.—Blocking Machine. Museum. London, 1896.—Davenport (C. J.). Royal English London, IMS.—Cantor Lectures on Book-binding. ledge to rise up along each outer edge of the back. This ledge it Book-bindings. (c- V.) is which enables the boards to be subsequently fixed in such a way London, 1898. as to binge on a line outside the actual and natural boundary of Book Illustration. See Illustration. the book.° Before the discovery of the possibility of producing this ledge, the boards of books hinged upon a line coincident with BOOk-plateS.—The value attached to book-plates, the inner edges of the back, the result of which was that when the otherwise than as an object of purely personal interest is book was opened there was an invariable tendency to open and pull away the few outer sections of the paper or vellum itself—a comparatively modern. The study of, and the taste for destructive and disagreeable peculiarity. These machines are collecting, these private tokens of book-ownership hardly capable, after they are properly set, of rounding and backing date farther back than a quarter of a century. Since about 750 volumes'of the same size, within an hour. _ Casing Machine.—A German patent machine for making cases, then the book-plate, or ex-libris. (to use a jargon term or “case” covers (Fig. 4), for books, is produced by an American firm. that is now finding its way into dictionaries), has become It is a large and complicated machine, but beautifully effective. It fully recognized as a small but attractive offshoot of the contains altogether over fifty springs, some of which are very small, general subject of bibliography. As a matter of fact, the like watch fittings, while others are large and powerful. _ The book-plate, or printed label intended to indicate ownership machine is fed with pieces of cardboard cut exactly to the sizes of the required boards, other pieces cut to the size of the back, and a in individual volumes, is nearly as old as the printed book long roll of the cloth with which the cases are to be covered, and itself. It bears very much the same relation to the handwhen set working the roll of cloth is gradually unwound and glued painted armorial or otherwise symbolical personal device by contact with a roller, which is drawn along until it reaches a found in mediaeval manuscripts that the printed page does point where the two boards are ingeniously dropped upon it one by one, then on again to where a long arm swings backwards and to the scribe’s work. The earliest known examples o forwards, at each movement picking up a piece of cardboard for the book-plates are German. According to Friedrich A arnecke, back and placing it gently exactly upon the glued bed left for it of Berlin (one of the best authorities on the subject), the between the two boards already fixed. Next, as the cloth passes oldest movable ex-libris yet brought to light are certain along, it comes under the sharp influence _ of two rectangular woodcuts representing a shield of arms supported by an gouges which cut out the corners, the remaining side pieces bein„ presented to the gradually but irresistibly turned up by hollow raisers and flattened angel (Fig. 1), which were pasted in books down by^small rollers, a very delicate piece of machinery finishing Carthusian monastery of Buxheim by Brothe^ Hll<Iebl^nd the corneis in a masterly way. Then, lastly an arrangement of Brandenburg of Biberach, about the year 1480—the date raisers and rollers acting at right angles to the last mentioned turn 302