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BOOK-PRINT ING — BOOTH Hon. J. Leicester Warren [Lord de Tabley]. A Guide to to avoid a gritty aspect in the blacks; hence the delicate embossed of the pages, and the absence of all overloading the Study of Book-plates. London, 1880.—Sir A. W. Franks. appearance Notes on Book-plates, 1574-1800 [Private]. London, 1887.— with ink. In the manipulation of English or “Roman vellum Friedrich Warnecke. Die Deutschen Bucherzeichen, Berlin, the consistency of the inks used is even greater, the vellum, qt 1890. Henri Bouchot. Les Ex-Libris et les Marques de Posses- course, not being damped. The so-called “Roman vellum is at Brentford. The vellum used for the Kelmscott Chaucer sion dxi, Lime. Paris, 1891.—Egerton Castle. English Book- made plates. G. Bell and Sons, London, 1892.—Walter Hamilton. was damped. Authorities.—Articles on the revival have appeared in the French Book-plates. G. Bell and Sons, London, IW*!.—Dated Bookplates. G. Bell and Sons, London, 1895.—H. W. Fincham. Artists Athenaeum, the Saturday Review, Magazine of Art, The Studio, and Engravers of British and American Book-plates, 1897.— and the Contemporary Review. More detailed and more accurate German Book-plates, by Count K. E. zu Leiningen-Westerburg, information will be found in A Note by William Morris on translated by G. R. Dennis. G. Bell and Sons, 1901. (e. Ca.) his Aims in founding the Kelmscott Press. Kelmscott Press, 1898. Floury. De la typographic et de Vharmonie de la page imprimec. 1 Book-Printing . — The latest development in Paris. —Hacon and Ricketts. A Defence of the Revival of Printing. (c. Ri.) printing, in which each component of a hook is controlled —See also article, Morris, William. by a sense of harmony and beauty, owes its conception BOOtn, a town of Belgium, in the province, and 10 and realization to William Morris, and takes definite form miles S. by rail, of Antwerp. Its numerous manufactures in the founts and books of the Kelmscott Press. Previous include boat-building, sail-making, and extensive brewing. efforts by Morris himself, Mr Daniel of Oxford, and Population (communal) (1880), 12,657; (1897), 14,971. others, count only as experiments towards a tasteful use BOOnO, capital of Boone county, Iowa, U.S.A., of material to hand. The great originality of the Kelmscott situated on Des Moines river, near the centre of the state, books lies, not merely in the order and design shown in at an altitude of 1134 feet. Two railways cross here, the their “ build ” and decoration, but in the vivifying of each Chicago and North-Western, and the Des Moines, Northern part from type to paper by a high order of design and and Western. Population (1880), 3330; (1900), 8880. execution. Herein they differed in 1891 in all essentials, Booth, Charles (1840 ), English sociologist, and in many new particulars, from all other modern books was born at Liverpool on 30th March 1840, and has been both in aim and aspect. The Kclmscott Press is distinguished by the use of three founts since 1862 a partner in Alfred Booth and Company, a designed by William Morris. The Troye and Chaucer founts, both Liverpool firm engaged in the Brazil trade. He. has for of them Gothic, named after books in which they first appeared, many years past devoted his time, and no inconsiderable are best fitted for ornamented mediaeval works. These books owe sums of money, to inquiries into the statistical aspects of their chief interest to the bold and handsome decoration by Mr social questions. The results of these are chiefly embodied Morris, and to woodcuts after designs by Sir Edward Burne-Jones; one of the most noteworthy examples is the “Chaucer,” of in a work entitled Life and Labour of the People in a page of which we are, by the special permission of William London, of which the earlier portion appeared under the Morris’s trustees, enabled to give a reduced facsimile (p. 307). title of Life and Labour in 1889. The nine volumes that In Swinburne’s Atalanta in Galydon we note the partial failure of this order of type to fit the character of a modern book. In the have appeared deal only with East, Central, and Southern Golden or Roman fount lie the strength and future of the Kelmscott London. The book is designed to show “ the numerical Press as an influence on type. The Golden type is without the relation which poverty, misery, and depravity bear to exaggerated contraction of form laterally, the exaggerated use ot regular earnings and comparative comfort, and to describe thick and thin strokes, or the vicious stroke-terminations common the general conditions under which each class lives.” It to modern founts. It is a type of full body, designed in careful relation to the up-and-down strokes, and resting upon solid serifs, contains a most striking series of maps, in which the as with Jenson, for instance, but in detail more allied to fine pen- varying degrees of poverty are represented street by street, manship or even black letter. The character of the decoration in by shades of colour. The data for the work were derived the Kelmscott pages is stamped with the vigour which one expects in part from the detailed records kept by school-board from a designer of Morris’s importance. Usually on a black ground, the forms combine a northern character in thistle leaf and com- “ visitors,” partly from systematic inquiries directed by posite flower, with a fluency of curve comparable to the famous Mr. Booth himself, supplemented by information derived borders of Ratdolt of Yenice. . from relieving officers and the Charity Organization The Vale books, often classed by writers and collectors with the Society. Mr. Booth has also paid much attention to a Kelmscott, may be counted with them so far as they also are kindred subject—the lot of the aged poor. In 1894 he singular in being controlled by one designer, from the important matter of type, decoration, and illustration, to that of ‘ build and published a volume of statistics on the subject, and, in press-work. The first Yale book in which each of these conditions 1891 and 1899, works on “Old Age pensions,” his scheme was achieved is Milton's Minor Poems. (1896). In this the Roman for the latter depending on a general provision of pensions type, known as the Yale fount, designed by Charles Ricketts, differs from the Venetian and Kelmscott founts by a greater round- of five shillings a week to all aged persons, irrespective of ness or fulness of body, and in a modification of details by the the cost to the State. conditions of type-making. The second fount used in the Vale Booth, Edwin (Thomas) (1833-1891), the issues, first employed in The Plays of Shakespeare (1896), is less round in body, more traditional in detail, and lighter in effect. most famous of American tragic actors, was born in Harford To be mentioned with the foregoing are some half-dozen books, county, Maryland, 13th November 1833. His father, Junius printed by L. Pissarro in the Vale fount at his press, “The Eragny Brutus Booth (1796-1852), was an elevated and powerful, Press,” with woodcut decorations. They are unique in the revival if erratic, English tragedian who had emigrated to the of printing by the occasional use of colours and gold.. No other books have hitherto combined the conditions specified United States. Edwin’s first regular appearance was in of new type, woodcut decoration, original woodcuts, and personal 1849 as Tressel in “Richard III.,” and he early played control. Two American founts, adapted from Morris, are tenta- Wilford in “ The Iron Chest.” He was a youthful Apollo, tively used by publishers. Mons. Grasset, in France, has designed lithe and graceful in figure, buoyant in spirits. . His dark an eclectic fount, but none of these can be associated with a special hair fell in waving curls across his brow, and his glowing press or series of notable books. Recently, however, Messrs. Sanderson and Walker have recut Jenson s fount and established eyes were soft and luminous, and most expressive. . His the Doves Press, conspicuous for its taste and technical excellence. father watched him with great interest, but with evident A certain number of technical conditions had to be faced in the disappointment, and the members of the theatrical prorevival of printing for the first time in late years, i.e., the print- fession, who held the acting of the elder Booth in great inc of woodcuts on hand-made paper, and. the printing of borders and initials in the body of the text; both in pitch and in sustained reverence, seemed to agree that the genius of the father evenness of tone the Kelmscott Press (notably in the Chaucei) had not descended to the son. It was not until after his remains unsurpassed. The inking - up process employed to parent’s death that the son showed any histrionic talent. achieve the above conditions is a very gradual one. The paper Between 1852 and 1856 he played in California, Australia, chosen for its regular thickness is, moreover, slightly damped,

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