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AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 7 statistics] belongs 4J per cent, of the total territory. The Church, the com- In millions of cwts. :— munities, and the corporations are also in possession of large areas 1870-5. 1881-5. 1891-5. 1899. of land ; 4 per cent, (speaking roundly) of the territory of Austria is held on the tenure of fidei-commissum. Of the entire property in In sugar beet 47-4 80-8 112-8 (1898) 94-4 large landed estates, 59 per cent, is laid out in woods; of the 26-6 38-6 50-2 (1898) 52-6 ,, (cattle) turnip property in fidei-commissum, 66 per cent, is woodland; of the entire forest land, about 10 per cent, is the property of the state ; Besides these principal crops, other crops of considerable magni14'5 per cent, is communal property ; and 3'8 per cent, is the tude were : Buckwheat in Styria, Galicia, Carniola, and Carinthia ; property of the Church. The whole of the territory in large rape and rape-seed in Bohemia and Galicia ; poppy in Moravia and landed estates includes 52 per cent, of the entire forest land. Silesia

flax in Bohemia and Moravia, Styria, and Galicia ; hemp

The forest land held under fidei-commissum amounts to over 9 per in Galicia

chicory in Bohemia ; tobacco in Galicia, Dalmatia,

cent, of the entire forest land. Agriculture, however, forms the most important source of and Tirol; fuller’s thistle in Upper Austria and Styria ; chrysin Dalmatia ; cabbage in Bohemia and Galicia, Lower income. Over 55 per cent, of the population draw their principal anthemum Austria, and Styria ; hops in Bohemia, Galicia, and Moravia ; rice A rlrevenue from it. Of the whole area of the state, in the Coast Province ; chestnuts in the Coast Province and Tirol; culture 35’45 cent, is; laid arable land ; 10'26 per olive oil in the Coast Province and Dalmatia ; mulberry leaves in cent, inpermeadows 2 ‘07 out per in cent, in gardens and vineDalmatia, and the Coast Province; the vine in Lower yards ; 8'88 per cent, in pastures; 4'66- per cent, in mountain Tirol, pastures ; 32’59 per cent, in woods; 0 38 per cent, in lakes, Austria, Styria, the Coast Province, Tirol, and Dalmatia. In the forest land tall timber predominates to the extent of marshes, and ponds ; 3 per cent, of the land is unproductive. The 85 per cent., and consists of conifers much more than of green or rest of the land is disposed of in other, not agricultural, uses. leaved trees, in the proportion of 70 against 15 out Forests The lands having- the largest proportions of arable soil are of the 85 per cent, of the total forests laid out in tall Bohemia, with 24 7 per cent. ; Moravia, with 11'4 per cent.; and Galicia, with 35’8 per cent. Of land laid out in vineyards, Dal- timber. Exceptions are the forest lands of the Karst, where, in the 80 per matia has 33 per cent.; the Coast Province, 22'3 per cent.; Lower Coast Province, medium-sized trees and underwood occupy Austria, 16 per cent.; and Styria, 137- per cent. Of mountain cent., and of Dalmatia, where underwood occupies 92 6 per cent., pastures, Tirol has the largest share, 55 6 per cent. ; Salzburg has of the forest land. Green (or leaved) wood is most prevalent 14‘8 per cent. ; Carinthia, 12-6 per cent, of woodland; 207 per in Carniola, where it forms 44 -5 per cent, of the total forest; in cent, falls to Galicia ; 15'4 per cent, to Bohemia; ll-3 per cent, Galicia it has 24'5 per cent, of the forest; in Bukovina, 22-1 per to Tirol; 11 per cent, to Styria. Within the bounds of each pro- cent.; in Lower Austria, 17 per cent. Scantiest in green tall vince, Styria has the greatest proportion of its surface under wood, timber is Tirol, where greenwood has only 2 -2 per cent, of all the namely, 47'9 per cent, of its whole area; Camiola has 41'4 per cent.; forest; Bohemia, with 4 per cent, in greenwood out of the entire Carinthia, 44‘2 per cent. ; Bukovina, 43’2 per cent.; Tirol, 38‘8 forest land ; Dalmatia, 4"1 per cent, of greenwood in its forest. per cent. The most thinly-wooded provinces are Galicia, with 25 '8 Greenwood is poorly represented also in Salzburg and Carinthia, in per cent, of its surface in wood ; Moravia, with 27 "4 per cent. ; whose forests its share is only 7 to 8 per cent. The amount of live stock is registered every ten years Bohemia, with 29 per cent. ; and Dalmatia, with 29 7 per cent. The produce of the ploughed land does not, on the whole, suffice along with the census of population. The numbers of the for the home requirements. Considerable quantities, in particular of different kinds of live stock in 1869, 1880, and livestock wheat and maize, are imported from Hungary for home consumption. 1890 were Only barley and oats are usually reaped in quantity for export. 1869. 1890. The respective areas of crop lands, the relative average yields and the total yields, in different crops, for different years, may be Horses 1,389,623 1,463,282 1,548,197 gathered from the following tables :— Mules and asses 43,070 49,618 57,952 Cattle 7,425,212 8,584,077 8,643,936 Quinquennial Average in 1000 Acres. Goats 979,104 1,006,675 1,035,832 Sheep 18S1-5 1S0I-5. 5,026,398 3,841,340 3,186,787 1899. Pigs _. 2,551,473 2,721,541 3,549,700 Under wheat . 2614 2677 2600 Beehives 913,783 926,312 920,640 rye and spelt 4724 4675 4464 barley . 2609 2767 The average yearly increase accordingly in horses was 0"53 per 2883 oats 4532 cent.; in mules and asses, 1-53 per cent.; in cattle, 0-74 per cent.; 4367 4578 maize 861 861 in goats, 0"28 per cent. ; in pigs, 1-82 per cent. ; in beehives, 0’04 817 pulse 640 674 (1898) 694 per cent. Sheep, on the other hand, have diminished in number potatoes 2522 2677 by 1 "92 per cent, yearly average. Galicia has the greatest number 2866 sugar beet 500 610 of horses to the square kilometre, viz., 9"75, the horses in the 509 (cattle) turnip 349 398 386 whole of Austria averaging only 5 "16 to the square kilometre. Upper Austria has 46 "14 head of cattle to the square kilometre, For every acre of land the average produce in the different crops against an average of 28"81 per square kilometre for the entire in bushels was :— monarchy. Goats most abound in Dalmatia, numbering 14-04 to the square kilometre, against an average of 3 "45 in the 1881-5. 1891-5, 1899. whole state. Sheep are most numerous in Dalmatia (61-16) and In wheat . 15-51 15-81 18-6 Istria (49 36), against 10 62 per square kilometre in the entire ,, rye and spelt 15-41 15-49 18-5 state. The rearing of pigs is carried on most largely in Styria, „ barley . 1772 19-61 22-3 28 -43, in Lower and Upper Austria, 20 -82 and 20-68 respectively, ,, oats , 20-88 21-97 26-1 against 11-83 to the square kilometre in the whole of Austria. ,, maize . 1872 18-93 16-8 The beehives to every square kilometre in Carinthia are 5-25 ; ,, potatoes 109-26 84-63 (1898) 108-0 in Carniola, 4'95 ; in Styria, 4*48, against 3-07 in all Austria. Galicia has the greatest number of horses to every 100 inhabitants, viz., 11‘59 ; Dalmatia, the greatest number of mules and asses, For each acre in cwts. viz., 5'90 to every 100 inhabitants; Salzburg, the greatest number of 1881-5. 1891-5. 1899. cattle, with 82-69, and Upper Austria with 70-38 ; Dalmatia, the greatest number of goats, with 34-15; Dalmatia, the greatest In sugar beet . 157-03 169-54 (1898) 180-1 number of sheep, with 148-80, and Istria, 76-98 ; Styria, the „ (cattle) turnip 107-50 121-01 (1898) 132-1 greatest number of pigs, with 49-71 ; Carinthia, with 38-36 ; and Upper Austria, with 31 "55 ; Carinthia, the greatest number of The total produce in millions of bushels was accordingly :— beehives, with 15-03; and Carniola, with 10-06. Altogether, a very important source of revenue is the rearing of cattle, which is 1881-5. 1891-5. 1899. quite a characteristic feature in the husbandry of the land and yields a large excess for export. In wheat . 41-8 43-5 50-0 regularly is an industry of the greatest consequence on account ,, rye and spelt 75-1 74-6 84-9 notMining of the manifold variety of its products, but of the ,, barley . 47-6 56-1 66-5 greatonly extension it has attained in certain branches. Minerals ,, oats , 94-0 1037 121-5 In quantity, the coal mines yield the heaviest output: ,, maize . 16-5 16-8 14-1 1899,115 million metric centners (a centner is nearly XV ton) of ,, pulse . 7-4 8-6 (1898) 97 in coal. Of this amount Silesia yielded 48 millions; Bohemia, » potatoes 284-1 232-4 319-3 pit 41 millions; Moravia, 16 millions ; and Galicia, 9 millions. Of