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316

BOSHOF — BOSNIA

AND

HERZEGOVINA

studies, the result of which was revealed in 1851-54, flysch intermingled with several strips of eruptive rock. when her Lcycestev in -A cdcTlnnd (3 vols.), Vvouwen In the south-east of Bosnia the predominant formations van het Leycestersche Tydperh (Women of Leicester's are Triassic and Palaeozoic strata with red sandstone and Epoch, 3 vols.), and Gideon Florensz (3 vols.), appeared, quartzite. Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as a series dealing with Robert Dudley’s adventures in the also in the fluvial and Karst valleys (Poljes), are found Low Countries. After 1870 Mrs Bosboom-Toussaint diluvial and alluvial formations, interrupted at one place abandoned historical romance for the modern society novel, by an isolated granite layer. Climatically, considerable variations are observable in different but her Delftsche Wonderdokter (The Necromancer of Delft, of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The winter rains oi the Karst 1871, 3 vols.) and Majoor Frans (1875, 3 vols.) did not parts region show how it belongs to the fringe of the sub-tropical climatic command the success of her earlier works. Major Frank zone. The greater part of Bosnia falls within a zone in which the has been translated into English (1885). Mrs Bosboom atmospheric precipitations are, with approximate equableness, disdied at the Hague, 13th April 1886. Her novels have tributed all over the year, having affinity on one side to the Alpine of the southern highlands of Austria, and on the other been published there in a collected edition (1885-88, 25 climate side to the continental climate of the regions of the Danube and H Tl vols.) ( - ) Theiss. The yearly precipitation amounts in the Herzegovina to 1610 mm. ; in Bosnia to 1030 mm. The mean yearly temperature Bosh Of. See Orange River Colony. in the Herzegovina is in the lower lands 11 "7 to 14g Celsius; Bosnia and Herzegovina.—By the Berlin in high regions, 7'7° Celsius ; in Bosnia, 8‘7 to 10 Celsius. Treaty of 1878 the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were handed over for civil administration and military occupation to the monarchy of Austria-Hungary. To Austria-Hungary was also committed the military occupation of the Turkish sanjak of Novi-Bazar, its civil administration being left to Turkey. Approximately of the shape of an equilateral triangle, the compact territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina forms the north-western part of the Balkan peninsula. It is bounded on the W. by Dalmatia, on the N. by Croatia and Slavonia, on the E. by Servia, and on the S. by Turkey and Montenegro. Leaving out 6 kilometres of maritime boundary, the frontier line for about two-fifths of its length is formed by continuous watercourses, and for the remaining three-fifths runs over solid land, yet always following distinctive geographical features. According to the cadastral survey, the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina amounts to 19,700 square miles. The land is in genei’al mountainous, yet ranges from low-lying plain up to the region of high mountains. In the north of Bosnia, along the Save, low-lying land, forming a continuation of the Hungaro-Slavonian depression, cuts here and there pretty deeply into the country, but in its progress to the south and south-west the land gradually rises, first to a hilly and then to a highland formation till, in the centre of the country and in Herzegovina, it attains the unequivocal character of high mountain. The hilly land reaches a mean elevation of about 1500 feet; the zone of highlands In correspondence with the natural configuration of the land comprises heights of 3000 to 4500 feet; in the mountain and the variation of climate, the productions of the soil in the districts of Travnik, Sarajevo, and Mostar, the principal four natural regions are different. Fifty-five per cent, of the lowis laid out in plough-land, garden, and meadow ; 40 per cent, peaks mount to over 6000 feet. In the depression, occupy- land of it is pasture and woodland. In the hilly region 41 per cent, ing about 5 per cent, of the land, the prevalent soil consists consists of plough-land, garden, and meadow; 56 per cent, of of exceedingly fertile alluvial deposits. The hilly land, pasture and woodland. In the highlands plough-land occupies about 24 per cent, of the whole area, and comprising about 26 per cent.; pasture and woodland, 72 per cent. In the fruitful valleys at the lower courses of its rivers, approxi- Karst region 16 per cent, is under the plough, and 81 per cent, is pasture and wood. The forest ol the Karst region is mainly mates in natural fertility of soil to the depression. The brushwood; that ol the other regions tall timber and copse.. mountains and woodland, about 42 per cent, of the whole For purposes of administration, Bosnia and Herzegovina are area, display not only natural forest and meadow, but divided into six districts (Kreise), the names, areas, and populaalso, though to a less extent, productive pasture. The Karst tions of which, according to the census of 1895, are as follows region, 29 per cent, of the whole area, from its scarcity Natural

Number Increase

of water and general poverty of soil, is suitable for culti; of Per- of PopuCivil Population. | Area in i sons to lation vation only in the valleys and adjacent slopes, the rest District. ! Kiloj a Kilo- since metres. being for the most part available only as pasture land. metre. 1885, 1 p.c. Geologically, the highlands of Bosnia and Herzegovina Males. Females. are to be regarded, both in their orographic and tectonic 8,411 121,131 106,976 228,107 27-12 1-86 character, as a continuation of the South Alpine calcareous Sarajevo 9,044 175,322 154,177 329,499 36-43 2-02 Banjaluka belt. Along the west frontier there appear broad and Bihai . 5,526 102,896 89,001 191,897 34-90 2-06 strongly-marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating Dolnja Tuzla 8,904 189,222 169,678 358,900 40-32 1-45 10,023 128,515 111,573 240,088 23-85 1-52 with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Pakeozoic Travnik formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia. Mostar (Her 9,119 111,104 108,407 219,511 24-07 i 1-70 ezgovina) . Next, proceeding from this region in an easterly direction, are the Neogene freshwater formations, filling up the Total . 51,027 828,190 739,812 1,568,002 30-73 I 1-74 greatest part of the north-east of Bosnia, as also a zone of