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iron and steel-works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery. In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina have since 1882 been included in the customs and commercial system of Austria-Hungary, to the extinction of all intermediate imposts. Since 1898 special statistics have been drawn up respecting its trade also with Austria and Hungary. According to these statistics the most important articles of export are wood, 722,000 centners ; coal and turf, 373,000 centners ; fruit, 417,000 centners ; minerals, 217,000 centners; soda, 124,000 centners; iron and steel, 82,000 centners; cattle, 324,000 head. Other articles of export are chemicals, dyeing and tanning stuffs, tobacco, sugar-beet, and kitchen - salt. The import consists principally of food stuffs, 546,000 centners; building materials, 228,000 centners; drinks, 95,000 centners; sugar, 45,000 centners; besides machinery, glass, fats, clothes, wooden and stone wares, and other products of industry. The total export in 1898 amounted to 3,861,759 centners ; the total import to 1,937,291 centners. Of this trade nearly 19 per cent, was absorbed in the intercourse with Austria-Hungary by highways and transport; 46 per cent, by the State railways of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1898 the total length of the railways was 877 kilometres, or 176 kilometres of railway to every 10,000 kilometres of the land. In 1898 the total length of the telegraph lines was 2840 kilometres, or 7182 kilometres’ length of wire-line. Both are under State administration. There is a national bank in Sarajevo with a joint stock of 10,000,000 florins, also carrying on a hypothecary credit business and managing the wholesale trade of the tobacco factories. There ai’e savings banks in Banjaluka, Bjelina, and Breka—all in stocks (340,000 florins joint stock), with a deposit, at the end of 1897, of 741,000 florins. Authorities.—Hauptergebnisse der Volkszdhlungen, 1879, 1885, and 1895. —Ergebnisse der Vichzdhlungen, 1879, 1895.—Strauss. ‘ ‘ Die osterreichisch. und ungarischen Staatsangehbrigen in Bosnien und der Herzegovina,” Statistische Monutsschrift, Vienna, 1897.—Das Bauwesen in B. u. H. Official, 1887.- Beitrag '~ur Kenntniss der Erzlagerstdtten Bosniens. Official, 1887.—life Landwirthschaft in B. u. H. Official, 1899.—Das Veterina/rwesen in B. u. H., since 1879. Official, 1899. — Jahresberichte uber das Berg- und Huttenwesen in B. u. H. (in the Austrian Periodical fiir Berg- und Hiittenwesen). Annual. — Ludwig. Die Mirwralquellen in B. u. H. —Bosnia und Herzegovina auf der Milleniumsausstellung in Budapest, 1896. (k. T. I.-S.) Bosnia. So raj.

were registered at the port, and there were 76 fishing boats, employing over 2200 hands. There are also a deep-sea fishing and steam trawling fleet (40 vessels in 1899). In 1898 fish valued at £87,672 was landed here. Population (1891), 14,570; (1901), 15,667. See Pishby Thompson. History and Antiquities of Boston. Boston, 1856.—Wheeler. The History of the Fens of South Lincolnshire (chap. xii.). Boston, 1897. Boston, capital of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, U.S.A., is situated in lat. 42° 21' N. and long. 71° 3' W. It is fifth in population among the cities of the United States, second in commerce and perhaps in wealth also, and richest in historic associations. In 1890 the population was 448,477, and in 1900 it was 560,892. The death-rate in 1890 was 23‘4, and in 1900 it was 20T, Of the total population in 1900, 274,922 were males, 285,970 females; 363,763 native-born, 197,129 foreignborn: 12,809 were coloured (of whom 11,591 were negroes). Out of 176,068 males, twenty-one years of age and over, 8111 were illiterate (unable to write), of whom 7701 were foreign-born. Out of 82,580 foreign-born males, twentyone years of age and over, 43,331 were naturalized, 3637 had filed their first naturalization papers, 24,119 were

See Serajevo.

Boston, a municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport of Lincolnshire, England, 4 miles from the mouth of the river Witham, and 107 miles K of London by rail. Since about 1884 it has been growing in importance as a commercial and fishing port, a result due principally to the construction (1882-84) of a new dock some 7 acres in extent, with an entrance lock giving vessels of 3000 tons access to the quay sides. In 1880-87 the bed of the river (for 3 miles) below the town was deepened to 27 feet, and a new cut of 3 miles in length made at its mouth into deep water. Further, an iron swing railway bridge, 126 feet long, was thrown across the river between the Great Northern railway and the dock. Above Boston the river was improved and the Grand Sluice deepened in 1881-83. A repairing slipway capable of taking vessels of 800 tons has been constructed. Ihe parish church was further restored _ in 1874-91. A wing was added to the hospital in 1887. Recent buildings include a church (1885), two grain warehouses, and fishmarkets at the dock, a memorial hall (1893), a seamen’s and fishermen’s institute (1892), and an endowed middle-class girls’ school. There are engineering works, and oil-cake and tobacco factories. The imports, principally timber, grain, cotton, and linseed, increased from ,£116,179 in 1881 to £449,499 in 1887, to £804,958 in 1893,’ and to £816,697 in 1899. The exports, embracing coal machinery, and manufactured goods, increased from £83 000 in 1883 to £175,725 in 1887, and to £349,712 in 1891, but declined to £261,873 in 1899. In 1885 22 vessels of 4521 tons cleared; in 1899, 213 vessels of 67 356 tons. There is also a coasting trade of about 70^000 tons annually. In 1899, 61 vessels of 4285 tons

aliens, and the citizenship of 11,493 was returned as unknown. The so-called Boston metropolitan district, popularly termed “ Greater Boston,” comprises thirty cities and towns within a radius of 10 miles (generally speaking) from the State House, having a population in 1900 of 1,128,704, or 40‘23 per cent, of the population of the state. Projects have been mooted for giving this district some form of political unity, and already the metropolitan principle has been recognized in the establishment of the metropolitan sewerage district, comprising parts of Boston, eleven other cities, and eleven towns; the metropolitan parks district, embracing twelve cities and twenty-five towns ; and the metropolitan water district, composed of the cities and towns within a 10-miles’ circuit of the State House. The government of Boston has been reconstructed in important particulars by amendments to the charter in Acts of the legislature of 1885, separating the executive and legislative