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BOSTON 319 branches, and in subsequent Acts. It now comprehends a a new State House, built (1889-97) in the rear of, and mayor, elected for a term of two years (annual salary, connected with, the “Bulfinch Front,” the State House $10,000), and a city council, composed of a board of designed by Charles Bulfinch, the pioneer American aldermen, thirteen members, elected annually (salary, $1500 architect, built in 1795. Boston is the seat of various each), and a common council of seventy-five members, collegiate institutions—the Boston university (chartered. three from each ward, also elected annually (salary, $300 1869), embracing a college of liberal arts, schools of law, each). In the mayor are vested the executive powers of theology, and medicine, and a graduate school of arts the city, and the legislative powers are vested in the city and sciences; the Massachusetts institute of technology council, to be exercised by concurrent vote. The mayor (founded 1865), comprising eight laboratories, and includappoints, subject in most cases to confirmation by the board ing six large buildings, workshops, and a gymnasium; the of aldermen, all heads of departments, boards, and commis- medical school, the dental school, the school of veterinary sions with the exception of the police commissioners, who medicine, and the Bussey institution, or school of agriare appointed by the governor of the commonwealth. The culture and horticulture, all of Harvard University, the mayor has the veto power over acts of the board of aider- remaining departments of which are in the college buildmen and of the common council, and, in matters involving ings at Cambridge; the Massachusetts college of pharthe expenditure of money, of the school committee. A two-thirds vote of all the members of both branches of the city council or of the school committee will override the mayor’s veto. The school committee is an independent body, having both executive and legislative functions, subject in its expenditure of money only to the mayor’s veto. It is composed of twenty-four members, elected for terms of three years, eight members annually, including such women as may qualify for that purpose. There is a superintendent of schools (salary, $4200), and a board of supervisors, six members (salary, $3780 each), to which women are eligible, elected by the school committee annually, the duties of the latter being to examine the schools in detail at stated intervals, and to conduct the annual examinations of pupils. The total expenditure for schools and schoolhouses in 1900-1901 was $3,714,446.26; net running expenses for the same period, $2,676,098.70 ; number of pupils, 88,852; net rate per scholar, $32.96; number of school buildings in 1901, 224; value of school buildings (nominal), $12,637,300. According to the census of 1900, there were in the city 143,858 persons of school age (5 to 20 years inclusive). The total current expenses of the city for 1900 were estimated at $30,000,000. The net city debt in 1901 was $51,385,763.44. The valuation of the city, real and personal, taxable property, in 1900 (1st May) was $1,129,175,832, an increase of $330,400,000 in twenty-five years. The valuation of property held by religious, charitable, literary, and scientific corporations, exempt from taxation, was: real, $21,508,300, and personal, $24,665,020. The Boston public library, founded 1852, is one of the oldest free libraries in the country, and the largest, with the possible exception of the Library of Oxjcrd lyoi Congress at Washington. The building (1888-95) is of By.Darbishirc &• .O.J-H ffowar/h Plan of Boston. stone, in the Italian Renaissance style, and of dignified facades, quadrangular in shape, surrounding a court, with macy (1852); the Massachusetts normal art school (1873); richly designed and embellished marble entrance hall. The Boston college (1860), Roman Catholic; and St John’s walls at the head of the main staircase were decorated by theological seminary (1880), Roman Catholic. Boston M. Puvis de Chavannes, and there are mural paintings in also sustains numerous art schools, while the museum of other rooms and corridors by Edwin A. Abbey, R.A., fine arts (founded 1870), with its school of drawing illustrating “The Quest of the Holy Grail,” and by John and painting (1876), is one of the most important S. Sargent, R.A., depicting the struggle of Judaism with institutions of its kind, well endowed, richly stored with polytheism. The cost of the building, with subsequent collections of paintings, statuary, and objects of vertu, and interior alterations, was $2,500,000. The annual cost of maintained at a high standard. As a musical centre maintenance of the library is $255,000, appropriated by Boston has long been recognized. Chief among its the city government. Other valuable and important lib- musical training schools is the New England conservatory raries, private institutions, but hospitable to scholars, are of music (incorporated 1870), the largest in the country. the collections of the Boston Athenaeum, founded in 1807 ; The Boston symphony orchestra, composed of picked the Massachusetts historical society (founded 1791); the musicians, organized in 1887, and sustained by the muniAmerican academy of arts and sciences (founded 1780); ficence of a single citizen, is a permanent feature, giving the New England historic-genealogical society (1845); each season twenty-four public concerts and as many the Boston society of natural history (1830); and the public rehearsals, of the highest order, at low prices. The Massachusetts horticultural society (1829). The Massa- Lowell institute, established in 1839 under the will of chusetts state library, in the State House annex, has a John Lowell, junior, who bequeathed $237,000, one-half notable collection. The State House annex is practically of his property, for this purpose, provides annually regular