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BOTO§ANI — BOUCHES DU RHONE 321 parish church restored, and a statue of the poetess, Joanna is an important export trade not only to the neighBaillie, a native, erected (1899). Population (1881), 1535 ; bouring countries but to North Germany, Russia, and (1901), 3097. The parish of Both well, which contains coal- America, is the principal resource of the district, in mines, quarries, and ironworks, embraces also the towns of addition to the important transit trade. Uddingston (5099), Bellshill (3330), and Holytown (2811), and parts of two others, besides several large villages. Boucher de Crevecoeur de Perthes. Jacques (1788-1868), French geologist and antiquary Population (1881), 25,540; (1901), 45,901. born on 10th September 1788, at Rethel, Ardennes, Botofani, a town in Rumania, in the north of was I ranee. He was the eldest son of Jules Armand Guillaume Moldavia, situated in the midst of a rich agricultural and pastoral country. It has a commercial importance, Boucher de Crevecceur, botanist and customs officer, and of being the town through which goods from Poland and Etienne - Jeanne - Marie de Perthes (whose surname he in addition to his father’s). A fancy for a seafarGalicia pass in transit for the south. There are extensive assumed Hour-mills equipped with modern appliances. The town mg life was quenched in him by a short experience at the of Boto^ani owes its name to a Tartar chief, Batus or age of thirteen, and in 1802 he entered Government employ Batu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, who occupied the as an officer of customs. His duties kept him for six country in the 13th century. There is a large colony of years in Italy, whence returning (in 1811) he found rapid Armenians. Population (1895), 33,000; (1900), 32,193. promotion at home, and finally was appointed (March 1825) to succeed his father at Abbeville, where he Bottesini, Giovanni (1823-1889), Italian con- remained for the rest of his life, being superannuated trabassist and musical composer, was born at Crema in m January 1853, and dying at Amiens on 5th August Lombardy on 24th December 1823. He studied music 1868. His leisure was chiefly devoted to the study at the Milan Conservatoire, devoting himself especially of what was afterwards called the Stone Age, “anteto the double-bass, an instrument with which his name is diluvian man, as he expressed it. By his collections of principally associated. On leaving Milan he spent some flints gathered in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and by his time in America and also occupied the position of principal monumental work Antiquites celtiques et antediluviennes; double-bass in the theatre at Havana. Here his first Memoire sur Vindustrie primitive et les arts d leur origin opera, Cristoforo Colombo, was produced in 1847. In (Paris, 1847, 1857, 1864, 3 vols.) he was the first to 1849 he made his first appearance in England, playing establish the existence of man in the Quaternary period double-bass solos at one of the Musical Union concerts. His views met with little approval, till the English After this he made frequent visits to England, and his geologists, following Falconer and Prestwick, pronounced extraordinary command of his unwieldy instrument gained m their favour. In 1863 and 1864 the discovery of him great popularity in London and the provinces. Apart human jawbones together with worked flints in the quarry from his triumphs as an executant, Bottesini was a con- of Moulin - Quignon near Abbeville seemed to vindicate ductor of European reputation, and earned some success Boucher de Perthes entirely, but doubt was thrown on the as a composer, though his work had not sufficient in- genuineness of the find, though not on the good faith of dividuality to survive the changes of taste and fashion. the discoverer, who was the same year made an officer of He was conductor at the Theatre des Italiens in Paris the Legion of Honour together with Quatrefages his from 1855 to 1857, where his second opera, L’Assedio di champion. Boucher de Perthes displayed activity in Firenze, was produced in 1856. In 1861 and 1862 he many other directions. He was the author of several conducted at Palermo, supervising the production of his tragedies, two books of fiction, several works of travel, and opera Marion Delorme in 1862, and in 1863 at Barcelona. a number of books on economic and philanthropic questions, During these years he diversified the toils of conducting e.g., Opinion de M. Christophe Vigneron sur les prohibitions by repeated concert tours through the principal countries et la liberte de commerce (1831-84), De la Misere (1840), of Europe. In 1871 he conducted a season of Italian De la Femme dans Vetat social, <Ssc. (1860). To his opera at the Lyceum Theatre in London, during which his scientific books must be added a rather fantastic treatise : opera Ali Baba was produced, and at the close of the year De la creation: essai sur Vorigine et la progression des he was chosen by Verdi to conduct the first performance etres (1839-41). of Aida, which took place at Cairo on 27th December oee ALU1US IjEDIEN. jouucner ae rertnes, sa me, ses oeuvres, 18/1. Bottesini wrote three operas besides those already correspondance. Abbeville, 1885. (j. M‘F.) mentioned : II Diavolo della Notte (Milan, 1859) ; VinciBoucheS dll Rhone, a French department guerra (Paris, 1870); and Ero e Leandro (Turin, 1880), the last named to a libretto by Arrigo Boito, which was on the Mediterranean, washed by the Rhone (which, disits waters into the sea, there forms a large delta), subsequently set by Mancinelli. He also wrote The Garden charging by the Durance, a tributary of the Rhone, forming the of Olivet, a devotional oratorio (libretto by Joseph Bennett), which was produced at the Norwich Festival in 1887, a N.E. frontier of the department, and by the Arc. Area, 2026 square miles, divided among 29 cantons and 109 concerto for the double-bass, and numerous songs and u nes JJ16 Populatum* hadforeign increased to minor instrumental pieces. Bottesini died at Parma on 2°““ 3477 in- 1901. This increase604,857 is due inin 1886, part to immi7th July 1889. . (r a> s>) Italian, the contingent of which mounted from j5 m 1 8 2 t 97 500 m 189 .1 7 . ? > ; deaths, 6-17,831; Birthsmarriages, in 1899, 16,683, (German, Bozen ; Italian, Bolzano) the chief oM 2079 were illegitimate 5031. ofInwhich 1896 town of the government - district of the same name the primary schools numbered 872, with 790,000 pupils- 4 per cent. of the population was illiterate. The chief towns are Po ulation ^/So01’ Catholic and P German,(1890), 11,744; (1900), with the exception of Marseilles (the capital, and the third city of France), with 442 389 inhabitants in 1896, Aix and Arles the sub-prefectures. The surcen ^ Per l- Italians. There is a garrison of tace under cultivation in 1896 amounted to only 741,000 acres, Botzen whicl1 is tlie ot 390,260 acres were plough-land and 61,750 acres in vines! •ft 6 ’ busiest commercial town 1 hewhich wheat in 1899 was of the value of £400,010, and the r mari ro , . and 1I that l> owes a portion of village its prosperity to other cerealscrop also yielded but mediocre returns. The vine brought i & popularity, of the adjoining of Gries, as a winter resort. This accounts for the handsome the department a revenue of over £1,043,000. Among the other cultures may be mentioned olive, yielding (1898) £245,779 ; and new district, with hotels and villas, which has grown up mulberry, £19,737. The sericultural product amounted to 2999 in the south-western outskirts of the town. Viticulture cwts. The live stock has largely increased since 1872, especially and the growth of fruit and vegetables, in which there | sheep. Out of 626,670 head in all in 1899, 528,490 were sheep^ the mineral production registered, in 1896, 364,000 tons of lignite S. II. — 4r