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BOUCICAULT — BOUGUEREAU

of the value of £132,000, and 63,500 tons of salt got from the 1850 divided the Grand Prix de Borne scholarship with salt-pans of the coast. Mining in 1898 yielded 16,000 tons of iron Baudry, the subject set being “Zenobia on the banks of and cast-iron. Altogether, its gross returns exceeded the value ol the Araxes.” On his return from Borne in 1855 he was £250 000 ; its principal centres are the forges and ship-engineering employed in decorating several aristocratic residences, works of Marseilles and Ciotat. Other industries are manufactures deriving inspiration from the frescoes which he had seen of oil, soap, glass, and chemicals. Including its transit trade, the commerce of Marseilles amounted in 1898 to the value of at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and which had already £78 200,000, more than a sixth of the general commerce of France, suggested his “Idyll” (1853). He also began in 1847 to which totalled the value of £440,000,000. exhibit regularly at the Salon. “ The Martyr’s Triumph,” Boucicault, Dionysius Lardner (com- the body of St Cecilia borne to the catacombs, was placed monly known as Dion) (1822-1890), actor and playwright, in the Luxembourg after being exhibited at the Great was born in Dublin, 26th December 1822. His education Exhibition of 1855; and in the same year he exhibitedwas partly gained in Dublin and partly in London. Before “ Fraternal Love,” a “ Portrait,” and a “ Study. The he was twenty he was fortunate enough to make an im- State subsequently commissioned him to paint the emperor’s mediate success as a dramatist with his play, London visit to the sufferers by the inundations at Tarascon. In Assurance, which was produced at Covent Garden on 4th 1857 Bouguereau received a first prize medal. Nine of March 1841 with a cast that included Charles Mathews, his panels executed in wax-painting for the mansion of M. Barren, Mrs. Nesbitt, and Madame Yestris. It was given Bartholomy were much discussed—“ Love,” “ Friendship,” out to be from the pen of “Mr. Lee Morton,” but all “Fortune,” “Spring,” “Summer,” “Dancing,” “Arion on Boucicault’s succeeding plays appeared under his own a Sea-horse,” a “ Bacchante,” and the “ Four Divisions of name. Amongst his most conspicuous early successes the Day.” He also exhibited at the Salon “ The Beturn of were: Alma Mater (Haymarket, September 1842), Old Tobit ” (now in the Dijon Gallery). While in antique subHeads and Young Hearts (Haymarket, November 1844), jects he showed much grace of design, in his “ Napoleon,” a A School for Scheming (Haymarket, February 1847), and work of evident labour, he betrayed a lack of ease in the The Broken Vow (Olympic, February 1851). In June treatment of modern costume. M. Bouguereau subse1852 he made his first appearance as an actor, in a melo- quently exhibited “ Love Wounded ” (1859), “ The Day of drama of his own entitled The Vampire, at the Princess’s the Dead” (at Bordeaux), “The First Discord” (1861, in Theatre. Soon after this he went to the United States, the Club at Limoges), “The Beturn from the Fields” where he remained (principally in New York) till 1855. (a picture in which Theophile Gautier recognized “ a pure A play of his called The Fox Hunt was successfully feeling for the antique ”), “ A Fawn and Bacchante,” and produced at Burton’s Theatre, New York, in. November “Peace”; in 1863 a “Holy Family,” “Remorse,” “A 1853. In September 1860 he reached the climax of his Bacchante teasing a Goat” (in the Bordeaux Gallery) ; in career in the production of The Colleen Bawn at the 1864 “ A Bather ” (at Ghent), and “ Sleep ” ; in 1865 “ An Adelphi, a play that was hailed as one of the best domestic Indigent Family,” and a portrait of Mme. Bartholomy; in dramas of the day. This was followed at the same 1866 “A First Cause,” and “Covetousness,” with “ Philotheatre by The Octoroon in November 1861. Boucicault’s mela and Procne”; and some decorative work for M. next marked success was with Arrah-na-Pague, at the Montlun at La Rochelle, for M. Emile Pereire in Paris, and Princess’s Theatre in March 1865. In this play he gave for the churches of St Clotilde and St Augustin; and in 1866 a masterly delineation of Irish character in the part of a the large painting of “Apollo and the Muses on Olympus,” Wicklow carman, a performance which won him . the in the Great Theatre at Bordeaux. Among other works by reputation of the best stage Irishman of his time. this artist may be mentioned “ Between Love and Riches ” Plays, original and adapted, flowed in numbers from (1869), “A Girl Bathing” (1870), “In Harvest Time” his pen during the next ten years; until, after the pro- (1872), “Nymphs and Satyrs” (1873), “Charity” and duction of The Shaughraun at Drury Lane in September “Homer and his Guide” (1874), “Virgin and Child, 1875, he returned to New York, and finally made his “ Jesus and John the Baptist,” “ Return of Spring ” (which home there. Previous to this he had undertaken the was purchased by an American collector, and was destroyed partial or entire management of various London theatres, by a fanatic who objected to the nudity), a “ Pieta usually with disastrous financial results. During the latter (1876), “A Girl defending herself from Love” (1880), years of his life he exercised a powerful influence in the “Night” (1883), “The Youth of Bacchus” (1884), theatrical world of New York, and was still prolific in his “ Biblis ” (1885), “Love Disarmed” (1886), “Love output of original plays and adaptations. He paid occa- Victorious” (1887), “The Holy Women at the Sepulchre” sional visits to London, where his last appearance as an and “The Little Beggar Girls” (1890), “Love in a actor was made in his play, The Jilt, at the Prince of Shower” and “First Jewels” (1891). To the Exhibition Wales’s Theatre in 1886. He was twice married, his of 1900 were contributed some of Bouguereau’s best known second wife being Agnes Bobertson, the adopted daughter pictures. Most of his works, especially The Triumph of of Charles Kean. He died in New York on 18th September Venus” (1856) and “Charity,” are popularly known through engravings. “Prayer,” “The Invocation,” and 1890. (E* F- s‘) “ Sappho ” have been engraved by M. Thirion, “ The BOUgle, a seaport of Algeria, on the Bay of Bougie, Golden Age ” by M. Annetombe. Bouguereau’s pictures, 120 miles E. of Algiers, at the foot of Mount Guraya. highly appreciated by the general public, have been It is the seat of a sub-prefecture in the department of severely criticized by the partisans of a freer and freshei Constantine. It serves Central Kabylia, and is a centre style of art, who have reproached him with being too for the commerce in oils, wools, hides, and minerals. The content to revive the formulas and subjects of the antique. traffic of the port amounted in 1898 to 70,000 tons. The At the Great Exhibition of 1867 M. Bouguereau took a population in 1872 was only 7200, but, owing to the third-class medal, in 1878 a medal of honour, and the impulse given to colonization, it had increased m 1890 to same again in the Salon of 1885. He was chosen by the 12)380, and in 1900 to 14,290 (2510 French). Society of French Artists to be their vice-president, a post Bouguereau, Adolphe William (1825- he filled with much energy. He was made a member of the Legion of Honour in 1856, an officer of the Order was 30th ' * _French - ^ painter, tn 1040born 4.:il 1at QKfLa Bochelle, -fli von rrli November 1825. From 1843 till 1850 he went through 26th July 1876, and Commander 12th July 1885. He succeeded Pils as member of the Institute, 8th January the course of training at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and m