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330

BOYACA — BRACHIOPODA

See W. M. Mitchell. Manual of Bowl-playing. Glasgow, 1880. —H. J. Dingley. Touchers and Buis. Glasgow, Thomas Taylor, 1893.—The Field. 31st March, 28th July, 15th December 1900 ; 23rd March, 22nd June 1901 (vols. xcv., xcvi., and xcvii.); and the Laws of the Game as adopted by the Scottish Bowling Association 1803, and also the Code drafted by the Imperial Bowling Association, and published in 1901. (j. A. M.) Boyaca, a department of the Republic of Colombia, bounded on the N. by the department of Santander and Venezuela, on the S. by Cundinamarca, and on the W. by Cundinamarca, Santander, and Antioquia. Area, 33,300 square miles; population, 508,000. The capital, Tunja, has 6000 inhabitants, and amongst other towns are Chiquinquira, Santa Rosa, Sogamoso, Moreno. Bozrah, (1) in Edom, now el-Buseireh, south-east of the Dead Sea, in the broken country on the west side of the Edomite plateau. (2) In the Mishor, or “plain country ” of Moab, perhaps Kesur el-Besheir. Whether Bostra, the Bosora of 1 Macc. v. 26, now Busra, in the HaurAn south of Damascus, was originally called Bozrah is uncertain. From its position it may be inferred that it was a place of importance at a very early period. Brabant, North, the northern half of the former duchy of that name (the southern portion of which belongs to Belgium), and the largest province of the Netherlands. The south-eastern part of the province differs in every respect from the north-western, being higher (on the frontier, 85-100 feet), on diluvial sand (with occasional clay and loam in the sub-soil and on the banks of the smaller rivers), Covered with heath and fens (the peel) and waste grounds (25 per cent, of the province), growing only potatoes, rye, and buck-wheat, and inhabited by a scanty, poor population of Roman Catholics. The north-western portion, on the other hand, consists of flat alluvial land (3-16 feet in altitude), has more and larger rivers (the Maas, Dieze, Mark, and Donge) and towns (’S Bosch, Breda, &c.), more fertile land, growing wheat and beetroot, a denser and Protestant population, and holds commercial communication by river and railway with the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, and Gelderland. Area, 1980 square miles; population (1899), 553,845. Brabant, South, a central province of Belgium, bordering on the provinces of Antwerp, Limbourg, Liege, Namur, Hainaut, and E. Flanders. It is formed of the southern part of the ancient duchy, which extended to the Lower Meuse north of Bois-le-Duc. In the time of the first kingdom of the Netherlands (1815-30), Northern Brabant was distinguished from Southern Brabant, and separated from it by the province of Antwerp. The surface presents plateaux of more than 300 ft. high (as much as 443 ft. at Waterloo) and ramifications of hills. The soil is generally fertile. The province has important paving- and building-stone quarries, numerous breweries and distilleries, beetroot-sugar refineries, and paper-mills. It is divided into the three administrative arrondissements of Brussels, Louvain, and Nivelles, and covers 1268 square miles; population (1899), 1,281,000 (or 1010-2 per square mile), against 959,800 in 1875. The arrondissement of Brussels alone has a population of 871,000, or 2035-7 to the square mile. Brachiopoda.—Since the publication of the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, though much has been written on Brachiopoda, little real advance has been made in our knowledge of the affinities and embryology of the group. On the other hand, our knowledge of the histology and structure of the adult has been materially increased by the researches of van Bemmelen (Jena ZeiUchr. xvi. 1883), followed by Shipley (Mt. Stat. Neapel. iv. 1883), Schulgin (Zeitschr. wiss. Zooil. xli. 1885), Joubin (Arch.

Zool. exp. (2) iv. 1886), culminating in the exhaustive papers of Blochmann (Untersuchungen uber den Ban der Brachiopoden, Th. i., 1892; Th. ii., 1900), which unfortunately at present deal only with Crania, Discinisca, and Lingula. Numerous dredging operations have added to what is known of the distribution and, to some extent, of the habits of the Brachiopoda. In particular Francois (Arch. Zool. exp. (2) ix. 1891) has given a good description of the mode of life of Lingula. The works on fossil Brachiopods which have appeared within the period named amount to hundreds, and are far too numerous to mention. American naturalists have been particularly active, and their labours have resulted in the system of classification given below. Beecher (Amer. Jour. Sci. Ser. 3, xli. and xliv.) suggested the four orders amongst which in 1893 Schuchert (Amer. Geol. xi. andxiii.; Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey, No. 87, 1897) arranged all the known genera of Brachiopods. The latest views on the classification are expressed in the latter author’s work published in 1897. An excellent summary of this side of the question is presented in Wood’s Palaeontology, and on a more extensive scale in the article “ Brachiopoda ” by Schuchert in the English edition of von Zittel’s Palaeontology. Coelomic Spaces. - With regard to morphology, the chief points in 2 _ which Davidson’s account of the group (see Ency. Brit. vol. iv.) has received amplification are the nature of the several cavi- 8 ties in the body and is —' in the arms, the structure of the vas- 0 cular system and of the nervous system, and the histology of the various tissues. The spaces in the body of a Brachiopod are coelomic in nature. The coelom, the walls of which give rise to the reproductive cells and the cavity of which opens to the p-x-tprinr t b ran. ®trb Fig. 1.—A diagram of the half ofina the Megathyris (Argiope), which has beenleft bisected median the nephridia, IS a plane. 1, the ventral valve; 2, the dorsal

], Lw^r valve; 3, the pedicle; 4, the mouth; 5, lip spaClOUS cnamoei which overhangs the mouth and runs all round surrounding& the ali-. valve the lophophor; 6, tentacles; 7, ovary in dorsal

8, liver diverticula ; 9, occlusor muscle—

mentary canal, and its double origin is shown ; 10, internal opening la continued ppri+innprl dpva left nephridium ; 11, external opening of the IS UOIS of same. ^ ventral adjustor; 13, divaricator ally and ventrally muscle ; 14, sub-oesophageal nerve ganglion ; 15, into the sinuses of the heart; 16, dorsal adjustor muscle. the mantle (Fig. 1). Some of the endothelial cells lining the coelom are ciliated, the cilia keeping the fluid contents in movement. Others of the endothelial cells show a great tendency to form muscle fibres. Besides this main coelomic cavity there are certain other spaces which Blochmann regards as coelomic, but it must be remembered that his interpretation rests largely on histological grounds, and at present embryological confirmation is wanting. These