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B R A D D O C K — B R A D F O R D-0 N-AY O N

It may, however, be pointed out that Brachiopods seem to belong to that class of animal which commences life as a larva with three segments, and that tri-segmented larvse have been found now in several of the larger groups. Distribution.—Brachiopods first appear in the Lower Cambrian, and reached their highest development in the Silurian, from which upwards of 2000 species are known, and were nearly as numerous in the Devonian period; at present they are represented by some 140 recent species. The following have been found in the British area, as defined by Norman, Terebratulina caput-serpentis L., Terebratula (Gwynia) capsula Jeff., Magellania (Macandrevia) cranium Mull., M. septigera Loven, Terebratella spitzbergenensis Dav., Megathyris decollata Chemn., Gistella cistellula S. Wood, Cryptopora gnomon Jeff., Rhynchonella (Hemithyris) psittacea Gmel., Crania anomala Mull., and Discinisca atlantica King. Undue stress is often laid on the fact that Lingula has come down to us apparently unchanged since Cambrian times, whilst Crania, and forms very closely resembling Discina and Rhynchonella, are found from the Ordovician strata onwards. The former statement is, however, true of animals from other classes at least as highly organized as Brachiopods, e.g., the Gasteropod Capulus, whilst most of the invertebrate classes were represented in the Ordovician by forms which do not differ from their existing representatives in any important respect. A full bibliography of Brachiopoda (recent and fossil) is to be found in Davidson’s Monograph of British Fossil Brachiopods, Pal. Soc. Mon. vi. 1886. The Monograph on Recent Brachiopoda, by the same author, Tr. Linn. Soc. London, Zool. Ser. ii.-iv. 1886-1888, must on no account be omitted. (a. E. S.) Braddock, a borough of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., situated in south-western Pennsylvania, on the Monongahela river, 10 miles S.E. of Pittsburg, at an altitude of 828 feet. It is entered by the Baltimore and Ohio, the Pennsylvania, and the Pittsburg and Lake Erie railways. It is the site of extensive ironworks. Population (1880), 3310; (1890), 8561 ; (1900), 15,654. Braddon, Mary Elizabeth (1837——), English novelist, daughter of Henry Braddon, solicitor, of Skirdon Lodge, Cornwall, and sister of Sir Edward Braddon, prime minister of Tasmania, was born in Soho, in 1837. She began at an early age to contribute to periodicals, and in 1861 produced her first novel, The Trail of the Serpent. In the same year appeared Garibaldi, accompanied by Olivia, and other poems, chiefly narrative, a volume of extremely spirited verse, deserving more notice than it has received. In 1862 her reputation as a novelist was made by a favourable review in the Times of Lady Audlefs Secret. Aurora Floyd, a novel with a strong affinity to Madame Bovary, followed, and achieved equal success. Its immediate successors, Eleanor's Victory, John Marchmont's Legacy, Henry Dunbar, remain with her former works the best known of her novels, but all her numerous works have found a large and appreciative public. They give, indeed, the great body of readers of fiction exactly what they require ; melodramatic in plot and character, conventional in their views of life, they are yet distinguished by constructive skill and opulence of invention. Her popularity in the British colonies is especially extensive. For a considerable time Miss Braddon conducted Belgravia, in which several of her novels appeared. In 1874 she married the late Mr John Maxwell, publisher. Bradford, a municipal, county, and parliamentary borough and city of the West Biding of Yorkshire, England, on an affluent of the Aire, 9 miles M. by S. of Leeds, 192 miles by rail N.N.W. of London. It has a station on seven railways, and communicates by water with the Mersey

and the Humber. It has adopted almost every public act conducive to its improvement. The old town has been re-modelled. A new central electric light station, just finished, is the completest of its kind. Additional waterworks, tapping the river Nidd 40 miles distant, are in process of construction. There are seven public parks. Kecreation grounds, besides, cover 30 acres ; and 670 acres of moorland, near the city, have been acquired as an additional recreation ground. Educational establishments include a girls’ grammar school (1875), a technical college (1881), acquired by the municipality in 1899, and the United Independent College (1888). Amongst recent institutions are a conditioning-house (1891), for which a new building has been constructed (1900); the post office (1886); the children’s hospital (1890); a home for incurables (1893); and a boys’ orphanage. The trade of Bradford, according to an official estimate, advanced between 1836 and 1884 from a total of five to at least thirty-five millions sterling, and from not more than five or six to at least fifty leading staple articles. The exports to the United States alone in 1895 amounted to the value of £5,549,000 ; owing to the McKinley tariffs, the exports in 1899 figure at £1,810,770. This decline is, however, much more than compensated by enhanced trade in the home market. The largest foreign customer for the worsted yarns is Germany, which imports ten times as much as Bussia, the next greatest importer. The annual turn-over in the staple trade of Bradford, according to a recent estimate, isnot less than £100,000,000. The Saltaire works for alpaca and mohair goods employ about 2500 hands, while silk works at Manningham cover 20 acres and employ 4500 to 5000 people. Furnituremaking is a business in rapid growth. In 1891, 13,837 males and 21,670 females were engaged in the worsted; 5040 males and 2954 females in the woollen; 1491 males and 2187 females in the silk; 1135 males and 1096 females in the cotton; and 2380 persons in the iron manufactures. There are three daily newspapers. In 1885 the parliamentary borough was made co-extensive with the municipal and divided into three districts, each of them to return one member to parliament; in 1888 the municipal borough was constituted a county borough, and in 1897 it was created a city; in 1899, whilst the parliamentary borough remained as before, the municipal, county, and city boundaries were extended so as to include the township of Idle. Area of municipal and county borough and city, before extension, and of present parliamentary borough, 10,791 acres; population (1881), 194,495; (1891), 216,361. Extended area of municipal and county borough and city, 22,720 acres. Population (1891), 265,728; (1901), 279,809. Bradford, a city of M£Kean county, Pennyslvania, U.S.A., situated in the northern part of the state, at an altitude of 1427 feet. It is in the petroleum region, and.its industries consist mainly in the production and refining of mineral oil. It is entered by four railways. Population (1880), 9197 ;' (1890), 10,514; (1900), 15,029. Bradford-on-Avon, a market town in the Westbury parliamentary division of W iltshire, England, on the rivers Avon and Kennet, the Avon canal, 6 miles S.E. of Bath, and the Great Western railway. There is still standing a small church, built about <05, and described by Freeman as “ the only perfect surviving church of its kind in England, if not in Europe.” At the summit of the hill on which the town stands is an ancient chapel, and on one of the central piers of the bridge a small chapel, much modernized, used in ancient times for mass. The parish church—Norman, Early English, and Perpendicular—has been restored, and contains interesting monu-