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349 BRAZIL Towns. Population. Towns. Population. In these numbers, however, the population is probably much understated, for the great extent of territory and difficulty of com- MontesClaros(Min. Ger.) 61,555 Muriahe (Min. Ger.) . 50,189 . . 50,064 munication render a complete enumeration impracticable. An Ouro Preto (Min. Ger.) 59,249 Belem (Para) 57,850 S. Joao d’El Rey (Min. official estimate, supplementing the census returns, puts the total Barbacena Ger.) . . • 48,722 56,404 number of inhabitants at 16,330,216. About 25 per cent, of the Mariana Cachoeira (Bahia) . 48,352 population are whites, mostly undersized and puny, living in the Porto Alegre (R. G. do Sul) . 52,421 Bom Jardim (Pernamb.) 46,742 coast regions; the remainder are mulattoes, negroes, and Indians. 51,602 Paracatu (Min. Ger.) . 46,621 There is, however, a large immigration, which is eagerly encouraged Purificacao (Bahia) by the Government, free passes from Europe, assistance on arrival, Constitution.—On 15th. November 1889 the Emperor and grants of land being provided for settlers. During the twentyeight years, 1871-98, 1,497,064 immigrants entered Brazil. In the Dom Pedro II. was dethroned and a Federal Republic last five years of this period the numbers were:—1894, 63,294; proclaimed, under the title of the United States of Brazil. 1895, 164,371 ; 1896, 157,948 ; 1897, 112,495; 1898, 53,822. The new-comers in 1898 comprised 33,272 Italians, 11,662 Portu- A Congress, convoked by a Provisional Government and guese, 5943 Spaniards, 669 Austrians and Hungarians, 477 Germans, elected by popular vote, met on 15th November 1890, and adopted, on 24th February 1891, the constiPernambuco tution now in force. Each of the old provinces forms a state, administered at its own expense without interference from the Federal Government, except for defence, the maintenance of order (with the consent of the state), and the execution of the federal laws; but fiscal arrangements, in such matters as import duties, stamps, postage, and bank - note circulation, belong to the union. The legislative power is vested in a National Congress of two chambers. The Senate consists of sixty - three members (three for each state and the Federal District), elected for nine years, one-third of the number retiring every three years. Members must be over thirtyfive years of age. The Chamber of Deputies contains 212 representatives, chosen for three years ; the number sent by any one state must not be less than four, and must not exceed Oxford rgoi B- V.Darbiihire dr O J.R.Hcwarth the proportion of one Sketch Map of Brazil. for every 70,000 inby a decennial census, habitants, as determined 247 French, 137 Russians (Jewish), and 129 Swiss. The Italian immigrants betake themselves in great numbers to the coffee Senators and deputies are elected by direct popular plantations in Sao Paulo, Espiritu Santo, and Minas Geraes. In vote, every registered Brazilian over twenty-one years Sao Paulo alone, in 1899, the Italian population was returned at of age, not disqualified for special reasons, being an 1,020,000. Spaniards and Portuguese usually settle in the northern states, where sugar, cotton, and tobacco are grown, or in cities, elector. Members of both chambers are paid. The where they engage in minor trades and industries. The German president and vice-president of the republic are likewise settlements are mainly in the southern states, Rio Grande do Sul elected by direct vote of the people. The term of office is and Santa Catharina, where the German colonists are estimated to four years, and the retiring president is not eligible for number more than 300,000. The principal towns, with their population as given in the census the succeeding term. The election is held on 1st March of 1890, are in the last year of each presidential period, and the new Towns. Population. president assumes office on 15th November following. Towns. Population. Rio de Janeiro . . 522,651 Juiz de Foro (Min. Ger.) 74,136 The president is the head of the executive; he sanctions ,, • 68,270 and promulgates laws, issues decrees, and makes treaties San Salvador (Bahia) . 174,412 Queluz Recife (Pernambuco) . 111,556 Sao Paulo (S. Paulo) . 64,934 (subject to ratification by Congress). He has supreme San Amaro (Bahia) . 79,220 Nazareth (Pernambuco) 63,746 command of the army and navy, and (with the consent Campos (R. Janeiro) . 78,036 S. Barbara (Min. Ger.) . 62,423 of Congress) appoints federal judges and diplomatic ,, . 62,136 Sahara (Minas Geraes) . 77,754 Grao Mogol Serro ,, . 75,270 Feira de S. Anna (Bahia) 61,758 ministers. He is assisted by a cabinet of ministers, who

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