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BRAZIL [history The railway system connects Rio de Janeiro with Santos and Sao imperial authority. The emperor occupied himself to Paulo to the south, and with the states of Minas and Espiritu a far greater extent with the economic development Santo to the north. The remaining railways are in isolated sections at Pernambuco, Bahia, Paranagua, Santa Catharina, and of his people and country than with active political the eastern and western districts of Rio Grande do Sul. The inten- life. Unostentatious in his habits, Dom Pedro always had tion originally was to link these various sections together, and form at heart the true interests of the Brazilians. Himself a a trunk line from Pernambuco to Rio Grande, thence making connexion with the Uruguayan railway system. Various definite highly-educated man, he sincerely desired to further the schemes are in hand for connecting and extending railways and cause of education, and devoted a large portion of his time tramways (electric and other); but, between judicial embargo and to the study of this question. His extreme Liberalism Government imposts, success in such enterprises is difficult to attain. prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines Posts and Telegraphs.—The postal service of Brazil shows a large annual deficit, on account of the vastness of the country, the diffi- preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant. Begun culties of communication, and the great abuse of the franking about 1880, this propaganda took deep root in the privilege. In 1893 there were 2826 post offices, and the mails educated classes, creating a desire for change and culcarried 33,441,000 letters and post-cards, and 37,674,000 samples minating in the military conspiracy of November 1889, and printed packets. The telegraph system of Brazil extends over by which monarchy was replaced by a Republican form nearly all the country, and is under Government control (some cable lines only excepted). At the close of 1896 the trunk lines were of government. At first the revolutionary propaganda produced no 4250 miles long, with 14,520 miles of wire ; the branch lines, 8300 miles, with 10,620 miles of wire; or a total of 12,550 miles, with personal animosity against the emperor, who continued to 25,140 miles of wire. There were also 1770 miles of line along the be treated by his people with every mark of respect and railways. At the same date there were 376 telegraph stations (45 affection, but this state of things gradually changed. In of which had telephone service) and 17 cable stations. The service, notwithstanding the transmission of more than 1,300,000 telegrams, 1864 the Princess Isabella, the eldest daughter of the showed a deficit of 5,000,000 milreis, due to too low rates and emperor and empress, had married the Conde d’Eu, a privileges to officials and the press. member of the Orleans family. The marriage was never Money and Credit.—The standard of value is gold, the monetary popular in the country, owing partly to the fact that the unit being the gold milreis, worth 2s. 2£d. at par. The 10-milreis gold piece weighs 8-9648 grammes, ‘916 fine, and thus contains Conde d’Eu was a reserved man who made few intimate 8'2178 grammes of pure gold. The 2-milreis silver piece weighs friends and never attempted to become a favourite.. 25'25 grames, '916 fine. The existing currency, however, is almost Princess Isabella was charitable in many ways, always entirely paper, which, owing to the large emissions made in the ready to take her full share of the duties falling upon her earlier years of the republic, is of depreciated value. The lowest point was reached in April 1898, when the paper milreis was worth as the future empress, and thoroughly realizing the respononly 5’81 pence. In June 1898 the scheme for the withdrawal of sibilities of her position ; but she was greatly influenced the paper money was put in force, and by the end of May 1900 the by the clerical party and the priesthood, and she thereby amount had been reduced from 785,941,758 milreis to 701,269,148 milreis. In addition to this arrangement two funds have been incurred the hostility of the Progressives. When Dom established—one for the redemption of the paper currency, the other Pedro left Brazil for the purpose of making a tour through for guaranteeing the notes continuing to circulate. Into the latter Europe and the United States he appointed Princess fund will be paid 5 per cent, of the import duties payable in gold, Isabella to act as regent, and she showed herself so and moneys from other sources, including the amount received or to swayed in political questions by Church influence that be received from the Bank of the Republic. When this bank was reorganized in 1897 it was agreed that its debt due to the Treasury Liberal feeling became more and more anti-dynastic. should be extinguished within twenty years. But early in 1900 an Another incident which gave strength to the opposition arrangement was made whereby the whole amount of 186,000,000 was the sudden abolition of slavery without any compensamilreis, comprising 66,000,000 milreis due from the bank itself, tion to slave-owners. The planters, the principal possessors 80,000,000 from the industrial bonuses account, and 40,000,000 from the mortgage bank account, should be extinguished by a present pay- of wealth, regarded the measure as unnecessary in view of ment of 25,000,000 milreis (at 8d.), and further payments in four in- the Act which had been passed in 1885 providing for the stalments amounting to another 25,000,000 milreis within two years. gradual freeing of all slaves. The arguments used were, The metric system of weights and measures was made compulsory however, of no avail with the regent, and the decree was in 1874, but the old system has lingered on. promulgated on 13th May 1888. No active opposition Authorities. — Araujo, Oscar i>’. L'Idee Ripublicaine an Brisil. Paris, 1893.—Blake, A. V. A. S. Diccionario biblio- was offered to this measure, but the feelings of unrest and graphico Braziliero. Rio de Janeiro, 1883.—Canstatt, Oskar. discontent spread rapidly. Towards the close of 1888 the emperor returned and Das rcpublikanische Brasilien. Leipzig, 1899.—Dafert, F. W. De bcmesting en het drogen van koffie in Brazilie. Amsterdam, was received by the populace with every demonstration of 1898.—Dent, J. H. A Year in Brazil. London, 1886.—Fialho, A. Historia de fundacdo da Republica. Rio de Janeiro, 1891. affection and esteem. Even among the advocates of —Ford, Isaac N. Tropical America. London, 1893.—Garraux, Republicanism there was no intention of dethroning Dom A. L. Bibliographic Br6silienne. Paris, 1898.—Levasseur, E. Pedro, excepting a few extreme members of the party, who Be Brisil. Paris, 1889.—Nery, M. F. J. de Santa-Anna. Le now gained the upper hand. They argued that it would be Bresil en 1889. Paris, 1889.—Nery, Baron de Santa-Anna. much more difficult to carryout a successful coup d’etat when The Land of the Amazons. London, 1900.—Sa, C. de. Brazilian Railways. Rio de Janeiro, 1893.—Steinen, C. von. Unter den the good-natured, confiding emperor had been succeeded by Naturvolkern Zentral-Braziliens. Berlin, 1894.—Wells, James W. his more suspicious and energetic daughter. Discontented Three Thousand Miles Through Brazil. London, 1886.—Handbook officers in the army and navy rallied to this idea, and a of Brazil. Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, 1891. conspiracy was organized to depose the emperor and —British Diplomatic and Consular Reports, especially No. 2475, annual series, 1900; and No. 520, miscellaneous series, 1900. declare a republic. On 14th November 1889 the palace London.—United States Consular Reports. Washington.—Nabuco was quietly surrounded, and on the following morning the de Araujo, J. Um Estadista do Imperio, Nabuco de Araujo, sua emperor and his family were placed on board ship and Vida, suas Opinioes, sua Epoca, 2 vols. Paris, 1898.—Ourem, sent off to Portugal. A Provisional Government was then Baron d’. Notice sur les Institutions de prevoyance au Brisil. formed and a proclamation issued to the effect that the Paris, 1883.—Album do Para. Rio de Janeiro, 1899. country would henceforth be known as the United States (w. W. R. • I. P. A. R.) of Brazil, and that in due time a republican constitution 2. Recent History. would be framed. The only voice raised in protest was Under the long reign of Dom Pedro II. progress and that of the minister of war, and he was shot at and material prosperity made steady advancement in Brazil. severely wounded as a consequence. Dom Pedro, comOccasional political outbreaks occurred, but none of pletely broken down by the ingratitude of the people very serious nature except in Rio Grande do Sul, where whom he had loved so much and laboured for so a long guerilla warfare was carried on against the strenuously, made no attempt at resistance. The Repub-