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BRAZIL

lican Government offered to compensate liim for the property he had held in Brazil as emperor, but this proposal was declined. His private possessions were respected, and were afterwards still held by Princess Isabella. The citizen named as president of the Provisional Government was General Deodoro da Fonseca, who owed his advancement to the personal friendship and assistance of Dom Pedro. Second in authority was placed General Floriano Peixoto, an officer also under heavy obligations to the deposed monarch, as indeed were nearly all of those who took active part in the conspiracy. Though the overthrow of the imperial dynasty was totally unexpected throughout, the new regime was accepted without any disturbances. Under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into existence, and continued till February 1891, when a National Congress assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of Brazil. The former provinces were converted into states, the only right of the Federal Government to interfere in their administration being for the purposes of national defence, the maintenance of public order, or the enforcement of the federal laws. Under the terms of the constitution the legislative authority is exercised by the National Congress, with the assent of the president of the republic. Congress consists of the senate and the chamber of deputies, and meets annually on 3rd May unless specially convoked for another day. The ordinary sessions last for four months, but may be prorogued beyond that period. No member of congress, after his election, can make any contract with the executive power, or accept any commission or paid office, except such as are diplomatic, military, or imposed by law, nor can any member be a director of any company receiving a subsidy from the Federal Government. Deputies and senators are paid; they cannot be ministers of state and retain their seats in congress. The president of the republic, in whom is vested the executive authority, is elected by the direct vote of the people, as is also the vice-president. The election is held on 1st March, and the term of office is four years. The outgoing president is not eligible for election for the succeeding term. All citizens over 21 years of age, properly inscribed and not being beggars, “ illiterates,” soldiers serving in the army or members of monastic orders under vows of obedience, have the franchise. The fiscal arrangements of the constitution provide that import duties, stamps, post office revenue, and bank-note circulation are the property of the Federal Government; but export duties, formerly an imperial source of revenue, belong to the states. The Constitution of the United States of America was taken as a model for drawing up that of Brazil, and the general terms were as far as possible adhered to. General da Fonseca and General Floriano Peixoto were elected to fill the offices of president and vice-president until 15th November 1894. This implied the continuance of praetorian methods of administration. The older class of more conservative Brazilians, who had formerly taken part in the administration under the emperor, withdrew altogether from public life. Many left Brazil and went into voluntary exile, while others retired to their estates. In the absence of these more respectable elements, the government fell into the hands of a gang of military adventurers and unscrupulous politicians, whose only object was to exploit the national resources for their own benefit. As a consequence, deep-rooted discontent rapidly arose. A conspiracy, of which Admiral Wandenkolk was the prime instigator, was discovered, and those who had taken part in it were banished to the distant state

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of Amazonas. Disturbances then broke out in Bio Grande do Bui, in consequence of disputes between the official party and the people living in the country districts. Under the leadership of Gumercindo Saraiva the country people broke into open revolt in September 1891. This outbreak was partially suppressed, but afterwards it again burst into flame with great vigour. In viewr of the discontent, conspiracies, and revolutionary movements, President da Fonseca declared himself dictator. This act, however, met with such strong opposition that he resigned office on 23rd November 1891, and Vice-President Floriano Peixoto assumed the presidency. Floriano Peixoto had been accustomed all his life to use harsh measures. For the first year of his term of office he kept seditious attempts in check, but discontent grew7 apace. Nor was this surprising to those who knewr the corruption in the administration. Concessions and subsidies were given broadcast for worthless undertakings in order to benefit the friends of the president. Brazilian credit gave way under the strain, and evidences wrere not wanting at the beginning of 1893 that an outburst of public opinion was not far distant. Nevertheless President Peixoto made no effort to reform the methods of administration. Meanwhile, the revolution in Bio Grande do Bui had revived; and in July 1893 the Federal Government was forced to send most of the available regular troops to that state to hold the insurgents in check. On 6th September prevailing discontent took definite shape in the form of a naval revolt in the Bay of Bio de Janeiro. Admiral Custodio de Mello took command of the naval forces, and demanded the resignation of the president. General Peixoto replied by organizing a defence against any attack from the squadron. Admiral Mello, finding that his demands were not complied wdth, began a bombardment of the city, but did not effect his purpose of compelling Peixoto to resign. The foreign ministers then arranged a compromise between the contending parties, to the effect that President Peixoto should place no artillery in the city, on condition that Admiral Mello should refrain from bombarding the town, provided the president did not place in it heavy artillery. Shortly afterwards the cruiser Republic/! and a transport ran the gauntlet of the Government forts at the entrance of the bay, and proceeded south to the province of Santa Catharina, taking possession of Desterro, its capital. A Provisional Government was proclaimed by the insurgents, with headquarters at Desterro, and communication was opened with Gumercindo Saraiva, the leader of the insurrection in Bio Grande do Sul. It was proposed that the army of some 10,000 men under his command should advance northwards towards Bio de Janeiro, while the insurgent squadron threatened the city of Bio. In November Admiral Mello left Bio de Janeiro in the armoured cruiser Aquidaban and went to Desterro, the naval forces in Bio Bay being left in charge of Admiral Saldanha da Gama, an ardent Monarchist, who had thrown in his lot with the insurgent cause. All was, apparently, going well with the revolt, Saraiva having invaded the states of Santa Catharina and Parana, and defeated the Government troops in several encounters. Meanwhile, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Bio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States, and organized the National Guard. Early in 1894 dissensions occurred between Saraiva and Mello, which prevented any advance of the insurgent forces, and allowed Peixoto to perfect his plans. Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Bio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro. S. II. — 45