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[dual monarchy :

agreement with Turkey having specified the numbers and he advanced farther he would be met by Austrian as Avell position of the garrison. Another slight alteration of the as Servian troops. But after the abdication of Alexfrontier was made in the same year, when, duiing the ander, Count Kalnoky stated in the Delegations that delimitation of the new frontier of Montenegro, the Austria Avould not permit Russia to interfere with the district of Spizza was incorporated in the kingdom of independence of Bulgaria. This decided step Avas required by Hungarian feeling, but it was a policy in Avhich Austria Dalmatia. The Congress of Berlin indirectly caused some difficul- could not depend on the support of Germany, for—as. ties with Italy. In that country was a large party Bismarck stated—Bulgaria Avas not worth the bones of a which, under the name of the “ Irredentists,’’ de- single Pomeranian grenadier. Austria also differed from Italy and man(led that those Italian-speaking districts, Russia as to the position of Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, the Irre- South Tirol, Istria, and Trieste, which were and during 1886-87 much alarm Avas caused by the massing dentists. under Austrian rule, should be joined to Italy ; of Russian troops on the Galician frontier. Councils of there were public meetings and riots in Italy ; the Austrian Avar Avere r summoned to consider Iioav this exposed and dismonths Aar flag was torn down from the consulate in Venice and the tant proA ince was to be defended, and for some T T embassy at Koine insulted. The excitement spread across was considered inevitable; but the danger A as aA erted b) the renewal of the Triple Alliance and the other decisive the frontier j there Avere riots in Trieste, and in Tiiol it steps taken at this time by the German Government {vide was necessary to .make some slight movement of troops as 1 _ . a sign that the Austrian Government was determined not Germany). Since this time the foreign policy of Austria has to surrender any territory. For a short time there Avas apprehension that the Italian Government might not be been peaceful and unambitious; the close connexion a ith strong enough to resist the movement, and might even Germany has so far been maintained, though duiing the attempt to realize these wishes by means of an alliance last few years it has been increasingly difficult to prevent the violent passions engendered by national enmity at with Russia; but the danger quickly passed away. In the year 1879 the European position of the empire home from reacting on the foreign policy of the empire ; Avas placed on a more secure footing by the conclusion it Avould scarcely be possible to do so, Avere it not that of a formal alliance with Germany. In the discussions on foreign policy take place not in the parliaAlliance autumn of that year Bismarck visited Vienna ments but in the Delegations where the numbers aie fever with 7 and the passions cooler. In 1896 Count Kalnoky had to Germany. and arranged A ith Andrassy a treaty by Avhich retire, owing to a difference with Banffy, the Hungarian Germany bound herself to support Austria against an attack from Russia, Austria pledging herself to minister, arising out of the struggle with Rome. He was help Germany against a combined attack of I ranee and succeeded by Count Goluchowski, the son of a well-known Russia; the result of this treaty, of which the Tsar was Polish statesman. In 1898 the expulsion of A.ustiian informed, was to remove, at least for the time, the dangei subjects from Prussia, in connexion with the anti-Polish of war betAveen Austria and Russia. It Avas the last policy of the Prussian Government, caused a passing irritaachievement of Andrassy, who had already resigned, tion to Avhich Count Thun, the Austrian minister, gave but it was maintained by his successor, Baron Hay merle, expression. The chief objects of the Government m recent and after his death in 1880 by Count Kalnoky. It was years have been to maintain Austrian trade and influence strengthened in 1883 by the adhesion of Italy, for after in the Balkan States by the building of railways, by the 1881 the Italians required support, OAAung to the French opening of the Danube for navigation, and by commercial occupation of Tunis, and after five years it Avas renewed. treaties Avith Rumania, Servia, and Bulgaria; since the Since that time it has been the foundation on which the abdication of King Milan especially, the affairs of Servia. policy of Austria has depended, and it has surA'Acd all and the growth of Russian influence in that country have dangers arising either from commercial differences (as caused serious anxiety. The disturbed state of European politics and the great between 1880 and 1890) or national discord. The alliance Avas naturally very popular among the German Austrians , increase in the military establishments of other countries, some of them went so far as to attempt to use it to influ- made it desirable for Austria also to strengthen The army. ence internal policy, and suggested that fidelity to this her military resources. The bad condition of the alliance required that there should be a ministry at Vienna finances rendered it, hoAvever, impossible to caTry out any which supported the Germans in their internal strugg e very great measures. In 1868 there had been introduced Avith the Slavs; they represented it as a national alliance compulsory military service in both Austria and Hungary, of the Teutonic races, and there were some Germans in the total of the army available in war had been fixed at the Empire avIio supported them in this view. The 800 000 men. Besides this joint army placed under the Governments on both sides could of course give no coun- joint ministry of Avar, there Avas in each part of the tenance to this theory ; Bismarck especially Avas very care- monarchy a separate militia and a separate minister for ful never to let it be supposed that he desired to exercise national defence. In Hungary this national force or influence over the internal affairs of his ally. Had he honved was kept quite distinct from the ordinary army; done so, the strong anti-German passions of the Czechs in Austria, however (except in Dalmatia and Tirol, where and Poles, always inclined to an alliance with France, there was a separate local militia), the Landwehr, as it was would have been aroused, and no Government could have called, was practically organized as part of the standing At the renewal of the Ausgleich m 181/ no maintained the alliance. After 1880, the exertions of Count Kalnoky again established a fairly good under- important* change "ms ”maxle, but in 1882 the system of standing Avith Russia, as Avas shown by the meetings oi compulsory service was extended to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Francis Joseph with the Tsar in 1884 and 1885, but the and a reorganization Avas carried out, including the iRP o outbreak of the Bulgarian question in 1885 again brought duction of army corps and local organization on the into prominence the opposed interests of Russia and Prussian plan. This was useful for the purposes of Austria. In the December of this year Austria indeed speedy mobilization, though there was some danger that decisively interfered in the war between Bulgaria and the local and national spirit might penetrate into the Servia for at this time Austrian influence predominated 1 Sir Charles Dilke, The Present Position of European Politics^. in Servia, and after the battle of Slivnitza the Austrian London, 1887. ambassador warned Prince Alexander of Bulgaria that if