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386

BRIGHTON—BRISBANE

Brindaban, a town of British India, in the Muttra district of the North-West Provinces, on the right bank of the Jumna, 6 miles N. of Muttra. Population, about 26,000. The municipal income in 1897-98 was Its.20,931. Brindaban is one of the most popular places of pilgrimage in India, being associated with the cult of Krishna as a shepherd. It contains handsome temples, bathing stairs, tanks, and wells. Brindisi, a seaport town and archiepiscopal see of the province of Lecce, Apulia, Italy, on the shore of the Adriatic, near the S.E. extremity of the kingdom, 346 miles by rail from Ancona. The port has been gradually, but slowly, improved and dredged year by year, the intention being to go on with the work until there is a depth of 30 ft. all over the inner harbour; the eastern arm was dredged to 13 ft. in 1898. In July 1898 the Peninsular and Oriental Company (who first used Brindisi as a port of embarkation in December 1870) began to start their main line boats from Marseilles instead of from Brindisi, chiefly with the view of decreasing the cost of the overland railway iourney from Calais. But at Brindisi they substituted an express service of small boats for Port Said, principally to carry the quails. The Peninsular and Oriental Company’s service from Venice vid Brindisi to Port Said was discontinued in March 1900. But there are mail services to Creek ports and to Constantinople. During the five years 1893-97 an average of 14,728 passengers sailed annually from this port; in 1898 the number fell to 2359.. Adding to the mail boats the tonnage and number of the trading ships, we find that the port was cleared by an average of 1335 vessels of 1,385,000 tons annually during the years 1888-99. In 1898 the British entries numbered 155 vessels of 362,700 tons, but m 1899 only 128 vessels of 153,000 tons. The exports average £326,100 (£253,000 in 1899) annually, and the imports £300,100 (£298,400 in 1899). There is not much industrial activity. As regards the public buildings, the cathedral has been recently restored, the castle of Frederick II. is now a convict prison, and the baptistery of San Giovanni has been converted into a museum. There is also a new theatre (1899). Population, about 20,000. Brionian Islands, The, in the Gulf of Venice, Brighton, a watering-place in Victoria, Australia, in the county of Bourke, on the east shore of Port Phillip off the Istrian coast, from which they are separated by the Bay, 7^ miles S.E. from Melbourne, of which it is prac- narrow Canale di Jasana. They belong to Austria and tically a suburb connected by rail. Population (1881), are twelve in number. Up to a recent period they were chiefly noted for their quarries (on S. Girolamo and Brion 4755; (1901), 10,029. minore), which have been worked for centuries and have Brin, Benedetto (1833-1898), Italian naval supplied material not only for the palaces and bridges of administrator, was born at Turin, 17th May 1833, and, Venice and the whole Adriatic coast, but lattcriy for until the age of 40, worked with distinction as a naval Vienna and Berlin also. As they command the entrance engineer. In 1873, Admiral Saint-Bon, Minister of to the naval harbour of Pola, a strong fortress, “Fort Marine, appointed him under-secretary of state. The two Tegethoff,” has been erected on the largest of them, men completed each other; Saint-Bon conceived a type of together with minor fortifications on some of the others. ship, Brin made the plans and directed its construction. The islands are inhabited by about 100 Italian quarrymen. On the advent of the Left to power in 1876, Brin was Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland, Australia, appointed Minister of Marine by Depretis, a capacity in which he continued the programme of Saint-Bon, while about 25 miles from the mouth of the river Brisbane, in enlarging and completing it in such way as to form the 27° 28' 3" S. lat., 153° 1' 55" E. long. The population first organic scheme for the development of the Italian has increased greatly since 1875, largely on account of fleet. The huge warships Italia and Dandolo were his the rapid growth of outlying suburbs; in 1901 the work, though he afterwards abandoned their type in population of Brisbane metropolitan area was 119,90c favour of smaller and faster vessels of the Varese and the The population of the city proper in 1901 was estimated Garibaldi class. By his initiative Italian naval industry, at 28,830 persons, and of South Brisbane at 25,485. almost non-existent in 1873, made rapid progress. The most important suburbs are Kangaroo Point, During his eleven years’ ministry (1876-78 with Depretis, Fortitude Valley, New Farm, Red Hill, Paddington, 1884-91 with Depretis and Crispi, 1896-98 with Rudini), Milton, Toowong, Breakfast Creek, Bulimba, oollonhe succeeded in creating large private shipyards, engine yabba, * Highgate, and Indooroopilly. The city is mostly works, and metallurgical works for the production of built on a series of hills rising from the river, but armour, steel plates, and guns. In 1892 he entered the some portions of it, such as Woollonyabba and South Giolitti cabinet as Minister for Foreign Affairs, accom- Brisbane, are built on low-lying flats, and have from time panying, in that capacity, the king and queen of Italy to time been much damaged by floods. The plan or to Potsdam, but showed weakness towards France on the Brisbane is not in accordance with modern principles, and occasion of the massacre of Italian workmen at Aigues- the streets are comparatively narrow, but they are well Mortes. He died on 24th May 1898, while Minister of paved and fairly well lighted with gas. Tim public Marine in the Rudini Cabinet. He, more than any other buildings are of an unusually fine order of architecture, man must be regarded as the practical creator of the such structures as the Parliament Houses, the new block of public offices, the Custom House, the General Post Italian navy. (H- w- s')

lately enlarged and extended; a new pier, completed in 1900, 1700 feet long, with a three-deck landing-stage at its head, near the site of the chain pier, which was washed away in 1896; the town hall, entirely rebuilt in 1899 at a cost of nearly £48,000; the town hall of Hove (1882), costing £40,000 ; the new parochial offices (1894), the Booth collection of (1400) British birds (1893); the Victoria (1888), Cobden Road (1894), and Hove (1894) public baths. The wholesale and retail fruit and flower market was rebuilt in 1901 at a cost of over £10,000. Places of entertainment are a theatre, rebuilt 1894 ; another theatre (1891), rebuilt 1895; a variety theatre, reconstructed 1892 at a cost of £30,000; a concert hall (1892) ; an alhambra (1888). In 1876 the aquarium was enlarged, and in 1878 its roof was laid out as a terrace garden. Under the powers of their Act of 1901 the Corporation have purchased the aquarium, and are remodelling and rearranging the building, in order to carry it on as a high-class concert hall and winter garden. The hospitals comprise a fever hospital and sanatorium (1898); a children’s hospital (1881) ; throat and ear hospital (1878), re-erected 1898. There are several public parks and recreation grounds. The Corporation acquired in 1900, for the purposes of a park, 180 acres of land on the east side of Ditchling Road. The mackerel and herring fishery is extensive. There are 4 daily, ^ 1 tri-weekly, and 9 weekly newspapers. Area of municipal boiough of Brighton in 1901, 2620 acres.” Population (1881), 107,546; (1891), 115,873 ; (1901), 123,478. Area of municipal borough of Hove in 1901, 1694f acres; population (1881), 20,804 ; (1891), 26,097; (1901), 36,542. Area of parliamentary borough in 1891, 3715 acres ; population (1881), 128,440; (1891), 142,129 ; (1901), 153,691.