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392

BRITISH

EMPIRE,

THE land surface of the earth is estimated to extend over about 52,500,000 square miles. Of this area the British empire occupies nearly one-quarter, extending over an area of about 12,000,000 square miles. By far Extent greater portion lies within the temperate X ' zones, and is suitable for white settlement. The notable exceptions are the southern half of India and Burma; East, West, and Central Africa; the West Indian Colonies; the northern portion of Australia; Hew Guinea, British Borneo, and that portion of North America which extends into Arctic regions. The area of the territory of the empire is divided almost equally between the southern and the northern hemispheres, the great divisions of Australasia and South Africa covering between them in the southern hemisphere 5,308,506 square miles, while the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, including the native states, cover between them in the northern hemisphere 5,271,375 square miles. The alternation of the seasons is thus complete, one-half of the empire enjoying summer, while one-half is in winter. The division of territory between the eastern and western hemispheres is less equal, Canada occupying alone in the western hemisphere 3,653,946 square miles, while Australasia, South Africa, India, and the United Kingdom occupy together in the eastern hemisphere 6,925,975 square miles. As a matter of fact, however, the eastern portions of Australasia border so nearly upon the western hemisphere that the distribution of day and night throughout the empire is, like the alternations of the seasons, almost complete, one - half enjoying daylight, while the other half is in darkness. These alternations of time and of seasons, combined with the variety of soils and climates, are calculated to have an increasingly important effect upon the material and industrial, as well as upon the social and political developments of the empire. This will become evident in considering the industrial productions of the different divisions, and the harvest seasons which permit the summer produce of one portion of the empire to supply the winter requirements of its other markets, and conversely. The empire contains or is bounded by some of the highest mountains, the greatest lakes, and the most important rivers of the world. Its climates may be said to include all the known climates of the world; its soils are no less various. In the prairies of Central Canada it possesses some of the most valuable wheat-producing land ; in the grass lands of the interior of Australia the best pasture country; and in the uplands of South Africa the most valuable gold- and diamond-bearing beds which exist. The United Kingdom at present produces more coal than any other single country except the United States (which exceeded the British output in 1900). The effect of climate throughout the empire in modifying the type of the AngloSaxon race has as yet received only partial attention, and conclusions regarding it are of a somewhat empiric nature. The general tendency in Canada is held to be towards somewhat smaller size, and a hardy active habit, in Australia£< to a tall, slight, pale development locally known as cornstalkers,” characterized by considerable nervous and intellectual activity. In New Zealand the type preserves almost exactly the characteristics of the British isles. The South African, both Dutch and British, is readily recognized by an apparently sun-dried, lank, and hard habit of body. In the tropical possessions of the empire where white settlement does not take place to any considerable extent the individual alone is affected. The type undergoes no modification. It is to be obseived in

THE.

reference to this interesting aspect of imperial development, that the multiplication and cheapening of channels of communication and means of travel throughout the empire will tend to modify the future accentuation of race difference, while the variety of elements in the vast area occupied should have an important, though as yet not scientifically traced, effect upon the British imperial type. The white population of the empire reaches a total of upwards of 52,000,000, or about one-eighth of its entire population, which, including native races, is popuIationm estimated at something over 430,000,000. The white population includes some French, Dutch, and Spanish peoples, but is mainly of Anglo-Saxon race. It is distributed roughly as follows :— United Kingdom and Ireland . . . 41,454,578 Australia ....... 4,600,000 Canada—French . . . 1,400,000 English . . . 3,800,000

5,200,000 Africa—Dutch 1,000,000 British / 100,000 India .... 100,000 West Indies and Bermuda 52,454,578 These figures must be taken only as approximate. In some cases census details are out of date, and official estimates have been accepted. The native population of the empire includes types of the principal black, yellow, and brown races, classing with these the high-type races of the East, which may almost be called white. It is distributed as follows :— India. 231,085,132 British Provinces Mainly high type, 63,181,569 Native States brown 607,710 British Tracts 294,874,411 The population of India is divided iuto 118 groups, on the basis of language. These may, however, be collected into twelve principal groups as follows :— Sinitic Khasi Aryo-Indic Aryo-Iranic Tibeto-Burman Dra vidian Semitic Mon Annam Kolarian Aryo-European Shan Gypsy Eastern Colonies. 0e7>o»{HMedbrO'™} • • Straits Settlements—Brown and mixed Chinese yellow . Hone-Kong—Chinese yellow . .

Brown North Borneo—Mixed brown . .

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' »° 267,073 228,000 211,000 1,901 . 200,000 4,298,974 Of the various races which inhabit these Eastern dependencies the most important are the 2,000,000 Sinhalese and the 750,000 Tamil that make up the population of Ceylon. The rest is made up of Malays, Chinese (in the Straits Settlements and Hong-Kong), Dyaks, Eurasians, and others. West Indies. The West Indies, including the continental colonies of British Guiana and Honduras, and seventeen islands or groups of islands, have a total coloured population of about 1,600,000. The colonies of this group which have the largest coloured populations are :— Jamaica—Chiefly black, some brown and yellow . 625,000 Trinidad—Black and brown .... 244,000 British Guiana—Black and brown . . . 270,000 1,139,000