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BRITISH EMPIRE, THE 395 Islands, St Brandon Islands, Amirante Islands, Aldabra Bombay States, including and some other small groups. There are also the KuriaCutch. Khairpur (Sind). Muria Islands, the Maidive Islands, and the Ashmore Kolhapur (and dependencies). Islands. In America there is all land which lies to the north of Madras States, including Travancore. Cochin. the Canadian provinces, with the exception of the United States territory of Alaska and its dependencies. Central Provinces States The Indian section of the empire was acquired during Bastar. the same three centuries under a royal charter granted to Bengal States the East India Company by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. Gooch Behar. Hill Tipperah. It was transferred to the Imperial Government in 1858, N. AY. Provinces States, including and Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress under the Rampur. Garhwal. Royal Titles Act in 1877. The following list gives Punjaub States, including the dates and method of acquisition of the centres of the Patiala. Sirmur (Kalian). main divisions of the Indian empire. They have, in most Bahawulpur. Maler Kotla. Jind. instances, grown by general process of extension to their Faridkot. Nabha. Chamba. present dimensions. Kapurthala. Suket. The nine provinces are :— Mandi. Kalsia. Name. Date. Method of Acquisition. In addition to these there are British tracts known as Madras . 1639 By treaty and subsequent conquest. Fort to St George, the foundation of Madras, was the Upper Burma frontier and the Burma frontier. There 1748 the first territorial possession of the E. I. is also a sphere of British influence in the border of Coy. in India. It was acquired by treaty with its Indian ruler. Madras was raised Afghanistan. The state of Nepal, though independent into a presidency in 1683 ; ceded to France has been since, the campaign of 1814-15 in close relations with. Great Britain. All these native states have come into 1746 ; recovered 1748. Bombay . 1608 Treaty and cession. Trade first established relative dependency upon Great Britain as a result of conto 1608. Ceded to British Crown by Portugal quest or of treaty consequent upon the annexation of the 1685 1661. Transferred to E. I. Coy. 1668. neighbouring provinces. The settlement of Aden, with Presidency removed from Surat 1685. Bengal . 1633 Treaty and subsequent conquests. First its dependencies of Perim and Socotra Island, forms part to trade settlement established by treaty at of the government of Bombay. 1765 Pipli in Orissa 1633. Erected into presivast congeries of states, widely different in character, dency by separation from Madras 1681. andThis aoquired by many different methods, holds together Virtual sovereignty announced by E. I. Coy., as result of conquests of Clive, 1765. under the supreme headship of the Crown on a N.-AV. Pro- 1764 By conquests and treaty through successive generally acknowledged triple principle of self- A(imioisvincesand to stages, of which the principal dates were government, self-support, and self-defence. The tration‘ Oudh 1856 1801-3-14-15. In 1832 the nominal sover- principle is more fully applied in some parts of the empire eignty of Delhi, till then retained by the Great Mogul, was resigned into the hands than in others • there are some parts which have not yet of the E. I. Coy. Oudh, of which the con- reached their full political evolution ; some others in which quest may be said to have begun with the principle is temporarily or for special reasons in abeythe battle of Baxar in 1768, was finally ance ; others, again—chiefly those of very small extent, annexed in 1856. It was attached as a commissionership to the hi.-IV. Provinces which are held for purposes of the defence or advantage in 1879. of the whole—to which it is not applicable; but the 'Central 1802-17 By conquest and treaty. principle, is generally acknowledged as the structural basis Provinces upon which the constitution of the empire exists. Assam . 1825-26 Conquest and cession. Burma . 1824-52 Conquest and cession. In its relation to the empire the home section of the Punjaub . 1849 Conquest and annexation. Made into dis- British. Isles is distinguished from the others as the place tinct province 1859. of origin of the British race and the residence of the Crown. N.-W. Fron- 1901 Subdivision. The history and constitutional development of this portion tier Province of the empire will be found fully treated under separate The senior commissionerships are :— headings. (See England and Wales; English History • Ajmere and 1818 By conquest and cession. Ireland, Scotland, United Kingdom, &c.) Merwara The total revenue, expenditure, and trade of the home _ • 1834 Conquest and annexation. British Bal- 1841-76 Conquest and treaty, section of the empire in 1900 were as follows : uchistan Revenue. Andaman 1858 Annexation. £119,839,905 Expenditure Islands 133,976,920 Imports . 563,146,659 The following is a list of the principal Indian states or Exports . 387,522,633 agencies which are more or less under the control of the . For full information with regard to the constitution and British Government:— history of India and the Colonies reference must also be made to the respective headings. (See India, Africa, Haidarabad. Kashmir. Baroda. Sikkim. Australia, Canada, &c.) Mysore. Shan States. It is enough to say that for purposes of administration Rajputana States, including the Indian empire is divided into nine great provinces (of Udaipur. Dholpur. which the ninth, the N.-W. Frontier, Avas proclaimed in Jodhpur. Alwar. 1901) and four minor commissionerships. The nine great Bikaner. Jhalawar. Jaipur (and Tonk. provinces are presided over by two governors (Bombay and feudatories). Kotah. Madras), four lieut.-governors (Bengal, North-West ProBhurtpur. vinces, the Punjaub, and Burma), and three chief commisCentral Indian States, including sioners (Assam, the Central Provinces, and the N.-W. Indore. I rentier Province). The four minor commissionerships Bhopal. Rewa. Gwalior. are presided over each by a chief commissioner. Above