with excellent judgment and a keen sense of humour, he was at the same time quick to respond to any call for sympathy. In physique he was tall and well proportioned, his height being six feet four inches, his weight over 21 stones. When kindled by his subject it seemed to take possession of him and pour itself out with overwhelming speed of utterance, with heat and power. His sympathy with men of other ways of thought and with the truth in other ecclesiastical systems gained for him the confidence and affection of men of varied habits of mind and religious traditions, and was thus a great factor in gaining for the Episcopal Church the devotion of many people and in extending its influence throughout the nation. On 20th April 1891 he was elected sixth bishop of Massachusetts, and on 14th October was consecrated to that office in Trinity Church, Boston. After a brief but great episcopate of fifteen months, he died, unmarried, on 23rd January 1893. The degree of Doctor of Divinity had been conferred upon him by the universities of Harvard, U.S.A., and of Cambridge, England. In 1877 he published a course of lectures upon preaching, which he delivered at the Theological School of Yale University, and which are an expression of his own experience. In 1879 appeared the Bohlen Lectures on “The Influence of Jesus.” In 1878 he published his first volume of sermons, and from time to time issued other volumes, including Sermons Preached in English Churches in the summer of 1882. In 1901 was published, in two volumes, Phillips Brooks, Life ■and Letters, by the Rev. A. Y. G. Allen, D.D., Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. (V. L.) Broughty Ferry, a police burgh and wateringplace of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the north shore of the Firth of Tay, 31 miles E. of Dundee by rail. The Castle •of Broughty (Burgh Tay, 1498) is mounted with some heavy guns and garrisoned by a few artillerymen. There is a small fishing industry. There are a Dundee Convalescent Home, three public parks, and also several highclass private schools. Population (1881), 7407 ; (1901) 10,482. > v /> Brown, Ford Madox (1821-1893), English painter, was born at Calais on 16th April 1821. His father was Ford Brown, a retired purser in the navy; his mother, Caroline Madox, of an old Kentish family. His paternal grandfather had been Dr John Brown, a Scotsman of humble origin, who established the so-called Brunonian Theory of Medicine, introducing principles and practice which are now allowed to be in great measure reforms. Ford Madox Brown was the only child of his parents, save for a daughter who died young. In childhood he was shifted about a good deal between France and England; and having shown from the age of six or seven a turn for drawing, he was taken, when aged fourteen and with meagre acquirements in the way of general tuition, to Bruges, and placed under the instruction of Gregorius, a pupil of the celebrated David. His principal instructor however, from about 1837, was Baron Wappers, of Antwerp, then regarded as a great light of the Belgian school. From him the youth learned the technique not •only of oil painting but of various other branches of art. At a very early age Brown attained a remarkable degree ■of force. in drawing and painting, as attested by an •extant oil-portrait of his father, done at an age not •exceeding fifteen. His first composition, towards 1836, represented a blind beggar and his child; his first •exhibited work, 1837, was “Job on the Ash-heap”; the first exhibited work in London (at the Royal Academy, 1840), “The Giaour’s Confession,” from Byron’s poem!
409 Both his parents died before 1840, leaving to the young painter a moderate competence, which soon was materially reduced. In 1840 Brown completed a large picture, “ The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots,” strong in dramatic effect and in handling, with rather sombre colour; from this time forth he must be regarded as a proficient artist, independent in his point of view, and strenuous in execution. He contributed to the cartoon competitions, 1844 and 1845, for the Houses of Parliament—“Adam and Eve after the Fall,” “The Body of Harold brought to William the Conqueror,” and “ The Spirit of Justice.” These highly remarkable cartoons passed not wholly unobserved, but not one of them obtained a prize. The years 1840 to 1845 were passed in Paris, London, and Rome: towards the middle of 1846 Brown settled permanently in London. In 1841 he married his cousin Elizabeth Bromley, who died of consumption in 1846, leaving a daughter, Lucy, who in 1874 became the wife of William M. Rossetti. Not long after being left a widower, Brown took a second wife, Emma Hill, who figures in many of his pictures. She had two children who grew up : Catherine, who married Dr Franz Hueffer, the musical scholar and critic, and Oliver, who died in 1874 in his twentieth year. All the three children showed considerable ability in painting, and Oliver in romance as well. The second Mrs Brown died in 1890. The most marked distinction of Brown as an artist may be defined as vigorous invention of historic or dramatic scenes, carried out with a great regard to individuality in the personages, expressions, and accessories of incident and detail, not excluding the familiar, the peculiar, and the semi-grotesque, when these seem to subserve the general intent. Owing, however, to his association with artists of the so-called “ pre-Raphaelite ” movement (which began late in 1848), and especially with Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who received some training in his studio in the spring of that year, he has been regai’ded sometimes as the jxrecursor or initiator of this movement, and sometimes as a direct co-operator in it. His claim to be regarded as a precursor or initiator is not strong; though it is true that even before 1841 he had pondered the theory (not then much in vogue) that a picture ought to present the veritable light and shade proper to some one moment in the day, and his “Manfred on the Jungfrau” (1841) exemplifies this principle to some extent; it re-appears in his very large picture of “ Chaucer at the Court of Edward III.” (now in the. public gallery of Sydney, Australia), which, although projected in 1845, was not brought to completion until 1851. As to becoming a direct co-operator in the pre-Raphaelite movement, he did not join the “ Brotherhood,” though it would have been open to him to do so; but for some years his works exhibited a marked influence derived from the movement, not on the whole to their clear advantage. The principal pictures of this class are : “ The Pretty Baa-lambs ” ; “Work” (a street scene at Hampstead, see Plate); and “The Last of England” (an emigration subject, one of his most excellent achievements) : dating between 1851 and 1863. “ Christ Washing Peter’s leet (now in the National Gallery of British Art) comes within the same range of dates, and is a masterly work; here the pre-Raphaelite influence is less manifest. Altogether it may be averred that the conception and introduction of the pre-Raphaelite scheme, such as it appeared to the public eye in 1849 and 1850, belong to Millais, Holman Hunt, and Rossetti, rather than to Brown. Other leading pictures by Brown are the following:— 11 Cordelia at the Bedside of Lear ”; “ Shakespeare ”; “ Jacob and Joseph’s Coat ” ; “ Elijah and the Widow’s Son ”; “ Cordelia’s Portion”; “The Entombment”; “ Romeo and Juliet ” (the parting on the balcony); “Don Juan and Haidee”; “CromS. II. — 52