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BROW N-S E Q U ARD — BRUCH are poems which stand out as unique and unsurpassable Catholic in 1844, and so remaining, though the question of the orthodoxy of his writings was at one time subin the literature of his time. Browning’s Life, by Mrs. Orr (1891), one of bis most intimate mitted to a cardinal by the Pope. In his philosophy friends in later years, and the correspondence with his wife before Brownson was a more or less independent follower of their marriage, published by his son in 1899, are the main Comte for a time, and of Cousin, who praised him ; he authorities. A collection of Browning’s poems in 2 vols. appeared may be said to have taught a modified intuitionalism. in 1849, another in 3 vols. in 1863, another in 6 vols. in 1868, In his schemes for social reform he was at first a student and a definite edition in 16 vols. in 1888-89. (l. S.) of Kobert Owen, until his later views led him to accept Brown - Sequard, Charles Edward Homan Catholicism. His first quarterly was followed, in (1817-1894), the eminent physiologist, was born at Port 1844, by Brownsoris Quarterly Review, in which he Louis, Mauritius, on 8th April 1817. His father was an expressed his opinions on many themes until its suspenAmerican and his mother a Frenchwoman, but he him- sion in 1864, and after its revival for a brief period in self always desired to be looked upon as a British subject, 1873. Of his numerous publications in book form, the though in the restlessness of his life and the enthusiasm chief during his lifetime were Charles Elwood, or The of his disposition characteristics of his mother’s nation Infidel Converted (1840, autobiographical), and The were plainly visible. After graduating in medicine at American Republic : its Constitution, Tendencies, and Paris in 1840, he returned to Mauritius with the inten- Destiny (1865), in which he based government on ethics, tion of practising there, but he soon went to America, declaring the national existence to be a moral and even a subsequently returning to Paris. In 1859 he migrated to theocratic entity, not depending for validity upon the London, and became physician to the National Hospital sovereignty of the people. After his death his son, Henry for the Paralysed and Epileptic. There he stayed for F. Brownson, collected and published his various political, about five years, expounding his views on the pathology religious, philosophical, scientific and literary writings, in of the nervous system in numerous lectures which attracted no less than twenty octavo volumes (Detroit, 1883-87), of considerable attention. In 1864 he again crossed the which a condensed summary appeared in a single volume, Atlantic, and was appointed professor of Physiology and also prepared by his son, entitled Literary and Political Nervous Diseases at Harvard. This position he relinquished Views (New York, 1893). Brownson died in Detroit, five years later, to become professor at the Ecole de Michigan, 17th April 1876. Medecine in Paris, but in 1873 he again returned to Brownsville, capital of Cameron county, Texas, America, and began to practise in New York. Finally, he U.S.A., situated near the southern point of the state, on came back to Paris to succeed Claude Bernard in 1878 as the Rio Grande, a few miles above its mouth, and opposite professor of Experimental Medicine in the College de Matamoras in Mexico. It is on the Rio Grande railway, France, and he remained there till his death, which by which it is connected with Isabel on the coast. It has occurred on 2nd April 1894. Brown-Sequard was a some river traffic, and a large trade with Mexico. Popubold investigator who did not shrink from trying daring lation (1880), 4938; (1890), 6134; (1900), 6305. experiments even on his own person, and in drawing Broxburn, a mining and manufacturing town and inferences from his results he seemed to be gifted with a railway station of Linlithgowshire, Scotland, on the Union sort of prophetic instinct which enabled him to reach correct conclusions before they were warranted by actually Canal, Ilf miles W. of Edinburgh by road. It is the ascertained facts. His researches, which are contained in centre of the Scottish shale oil trade. There is a public about 500 essays and papers, some written in French and hall, with reading-room. Population (1881), 3066 ; (1901) some in English, cover a wide range, but are especially 6270. Bruay, a town in the arrondissement of Bethune, concerned with the physiology and pathology of _ the nervous system. Towards the end of his life he gained department of Pas-de-Calais, France, on the Lawe, an a certain notoriety among people who would otherwise affluent of the Lys, 16 miles in direct line N.W. of Arras, have taken no interest in his work, by his advocacy of the with station on the railway from Lens to St. Pol. It is subcutaneous injection of orchitic substance for the treat- situated in a rich coal-mining district. Population (1886), ment of nervous disorders. In this particular case the 5052; (1901), 7095. beneficial effects of the method are open to question, but Bruch, Max (1838 ), German musical comin other applications, e.g., the administration of thyroid poser, son of a city official and grandson of the famous in myxoedema, good results have been obtained by the Evangelical cleric, Dr Christian Bruch, was born at system of organotherapy, which is founded on the doctrines Cologne, 6th January 1838. From his mother {nee he held respecting the importance of the internal secre- Almenrader), a well-known musician of her time, he learnt tions of certain organs and their reabsorption into the the elements of music, but under Breidenstein he made circulation. his first serious effort at composition at the age of fourteen Brownson, Orestes Augustus (1803 by the production of a symphony. In 1853 Bruch gained 1876), American theological, philosophical, and sociological the Mozart Stipendium of 400 gulden per annum for four writer, was born in Stockbridge, Vermont, 16th September years at Frankfort-on-Main, and for the following few years 1803. Having spent some time in active religious, refor- studied under Hiller, Reinecke, and Breunung. Subsematory, and political (Democratic) work in the interior of quently he lived from 1858 to 1861 as pianoforte teacher New York State, Brownson removed to Chelsea, near at Cologne, in which city his first opera (in one act), Boston, Massachusetts, and at once made himself felt in Scherz, List und Rache, was produced in 1858. On the movements then agitating New England, which, his father’s death, in 1861, Bruch began a tour of between 1830 and 1850, was stirred by discussions per- study at Berlin, Leipzig, Vienna, Munich, Dresden, and taining to unitarianism, transcendentalism, spiritualism, Mannheim, where his opera Lorelei was brought out in abolitionism, and various schemes for communistic living. 1863. At Mannheim he lived till 1864, and there he In several of these movements Brownson took an active wrote some of his best-known works, including the but independent part, establishing the Boston Quarterly beautiful Frithjof. After a further period of travel he Review, mainly written by himself, in 1838. In his became musical-director at Coblenz (1865-6 /), Hof-kapellreligious views he was successively a Presbyterian, a meister at Sondershausen (186/-70), and lived in Beilin Universalist, and a Unitarian, finally becoming a Homan (1871-73), where he wrote his Odysseus; his first violin