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B R U C H S A L — BRUNEI concerto and two symphonies being composed at Sondersliausen. After five years at Bonn (1873-78), during which he made two visits to England, Bruch, in 1878, succeeded Stockhausen as conductor of the Stern Choral Union; in 1880 Benedict at the Liverpool Philharmonic; in 1892 von Herzogenberg at the Berlin Hochschule. In 1893 he was given the honorary degree of Mus. Doc. by Cambridge University. Max Bruch has written in almost every conceivable musical form, invariably with straightforward honest simplicity of design. He has a gift of refined melody beyond the common, his melodies being broad and suave and often exceptionally beautiful. Bruchsal, a town of Germany, grand-duchy of Baden, 20 miles by rail S. of Heidelberg. It has a technical school, a prison constructed on the single-cell system, a gaol for female prisoners, and manufactures of machinery, paper, soap, beer, &c. Population (1885), 11,662 ; (1895), 12,614; (1900), 13,567. Bruges (Flemish, Brugge), capital of the Belgian province of W. Flanders, 14 miles by rail E. of Ostend, at the junction of the Ghent, Ostend, and Sluys Canals. This delightful town is largely visited for the sake of its old buildings and its art treasures. Its ancient rampart is levelled and turned into a promenade, and its moat is in large part filled up. The manufacture of lace of various kinds employs about 12,000 women, from 4000 to 5000 of whom live in the city. There are also works for the construction of railway material and steam trawlers, brush factories, establishments for smoking herring and other fish, and many nurseries. The canal to Ostend offers an indifferent sea-road, because of its shallowness, sluices, and bridges. The new maritime way, intended to be completed in 1902, includes a port of call on the North Sea at Heyst, and a canal, 26 ft. deep, running in a straight line, 7 miles long, to Bruges, which will then be an inland port (see Canals). The population, 47,961 in 1875, had fallen to 44,501 in 1880, but since then it has gradually increased to 55,641 in 1900. See Weale, Bruges et ses environs, 1865 ; St ad Brugge, Verslag over het bestuur en den toestand van stads zaken, 1897 ; Compagnie des installations maritimes de Bruges: le port d'escale et le port interieur de Bruges, 1898 ; Bulletin de la societe royale beige de geographic, 1898. — J. mr Fief. Bruges et le nouveau canal maritime. (,L DU F Brugsch, Heinrich Karl (1827 1894), German Egyptologist, was the son of a Prussian cavalry officer, and was born in the barracks at Berlin, 18th February 1827. He early manifested a great inclination to Egyptian studies, in which, though encouraged by Humboldt, he was almost entirely self-taught. After completing his university course and visiting foreign museums he was sent to Egypt by the Prussian Government in 1853, and contracted an intimate friendship with Mariette. On his return he received an appointment in the Berlin Museum. In 1860 he was sent to Persia on a special mission under Baron Minutoli, travelled over the country, and after Minutoli’s death discharged the functions of ambassador. In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at Gottingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the Khedive. From this post he was unceremoniously dismissed in 1879 by the European controllers of the public revenues, determined to economize at all hazards ; and French jealousy prevented his succeeding his friend Mariette at the Boulak Museum in 1883. He afterwards resided principally in Germany until his death on 9th September 1894, but frequently visited Egypt, took part in another official mission to Persia, and organized an Egyptian expedition in the United States. He had been made a pasha by the Khedive in 1881. He published his autobiography in 1894, concluding with a

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warm panegyric upon British rule in Egypt. Brugsch’s services to Egyptology are most important, including the standard ancient Egyptian History (1877), a geographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt (1877-80); a hieroglyphicdemotic Dictionary (1877-82), and numerous works on the monuments. He also published accounts of his travels in Persia and northern Africa. (r. g.) Brunei, a state situated in the north-west of Borneo. It has been so diminished in area since the beginning of the 19th century as to have become in comparison with the other states of Borneo territorially insignificant. It formerly included the whole of Northern Borneo, Southern Palawan, and stretched down the west coast as far as Sambas. What remains of this once powerful sultanate is a triangular-shaped territory, the base of the triangle being represented by eighty miles of coast-line, and the two sides by the frontiers of Sarawak. The area, as calculated by one method, is 1686 square miles; by another, 1701 square miles. In 1888 the state was placed under British protection. The country is ruled by a sultan, with absolute powers, whose usually good intentions are thwarted by ministers. The interior people have for centuries been subject to petty oppression, and there is too much of the old spirit left among the Malays to avoid acrimonious dispute and rebellion. The bulk of its inhabitants, who consist of Malays, Kadayans, Orang Bukits, and a few Muruts, are to be found in and about the capital—also called Brunei—the population of the city being estimated at about 15,000, and the population of the whole territory being about 25,000. The city is prettily situated on the river, with cleared hills in the distance, and a background of heights clothed with magnificent forest. The dwelling-houses are built over the river, on slender piles obtained from the Nibong palm which resists the action of the water for several years. Though there are practically no exports and imports, there is a certain amount of inland commerce, the Brunei Malay usually earning a living as a trader with the interior tribes of Sarawak and British North Borneo. Some of them are skilled workers of brass, and the Brunei women make very beautiful cloth, interwoven and embroidered with gold thread. Sago is worked in Tutong and Balait, the two most important rivers in Brunei territory, but only a small quantity of rice is cultivated. The history of this ancient and decaying sultanate is of great interest. Brunei or, as it is called by the natives, Bruni or Darul-Salam (city of peace), possesses a historic tablet of stone upon which, in a.h. 1221 (1804), was engraved in Malay characters the genealogy of the sovereigns who have ruled over the country. The engraving was the work of Datu Imaum Yakub, the high priest at the time, who received the genealogy from the lips of Merhoum Bongsu, otherwise the Sultan Muadin, and Sultan Kemal-Udin, who ordered this record of their forefathers to be written. This stone tablet now stands on the tomb of Sultan Mahommed Jemal-ul-Alam at the foot ol Panggal hill, in the city of Brunei. The Selesilah, or Book of Descent, is kept in the palace by the present sultan. The other heirlooms which are also kept in the sultan s palace, and which descend to each sultan in turn, are the “ Nobab Nagara ” (two royal drums) from Johore and MenangKabau, and the “Gunta Alamat” (bells), the gift of Sultan Bahkei ol J chore or Malacca. The first sultan of Brunei was Alakber-Tata, who was probably of Bisaya stock, and who governed the country before the introduction of Islam, in the 15th century. He assumed the name of Mahommed on his conversion to Islam, which was brought about during a visit to the Malay peninsula. Brunei, at this time, was a dependency of Menjapahit (Java), and paid a yearly tribute of a jar of areca juice obtained from the young ■ green nuts of the areca palm, and of no monetary value. The Hindu kingdom of Menjapahit was destroyed by the Mahommedans in 1478, and Brunei is mentioned in the history of Java as one of the countries conquered by Adaya Mingrat, the general of Angka Wijaya. Sultan Mahommed’s only child was a daughter. His brother Akhmed married the daughter of Ong Chum Ping, a Chinese officer said to have been sent by his emperor to obtain a S. II. — 53