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jewel from mount Kina Balu in North Borneo, and was the possesses two prime qualifications of a great critic, vast successor of Sultan Mahommed in the sovereignty of Brunei. erudition and unflinching courage. His mind is closely He was succeeded by Sultan Berkat, an Arab Serif of high rank, logical and intensely accurate, and he rarely makes a trip from the country of Taif in Arabia, who had married Sultan in the wide field of study over which it ranges. The Akhmed’s only child. Sultan Berkat built a mosque and enforced Mahommedan law, and with the assistance of the Chinese built the most honest, if not the most impartial, of magisterial stone wall, by sinking forty junks filled with rock across the mouth writers, he has a hatred of the unreal, and a contempt foi of the Brunei river, between the islands of Kaya Orang and the trivial: nobody is more merciless towards those who Chermin, which is still in existence. This work was completed affect effete and decadent literary forms, or maintain a before the arrival of Pigafetta in 1521. In the reign of Sultan vicious standard of art. On the other hand, his intolerBulkeiah Magellan’s squadron anchored off the mouth of Brunei river in August 1521, and Pigafetta makes mention of the splendid ance, his sledge-hammer methods of attack, and a certain court and the imperial magnificence of the Borneo capital. dry pedantry, have alienated the sympathies of many who Sultan Bulkeiah was otherwise known as Nakoda Ragam, and was recognize the remarkable qualities of his mind. The the great warrior of Brunei who voyaged to Java, Malacca, Luzon, application of universal principles to every question of and all round the coast of Borneo. His tomb, which is handsomely built of stone, is still to be seen in Brunei,_ and is constantly letters is a check to dilettante habits of thought, but it is visited by Malays, who leave money and various articles on the apt to detain the critic in a somewhat narrow and dusty tomb as offerings to his memory. Others, again, come and take path. M. Brunetiere’s influence, however, cannot be disaway anything they can find, which they keep as charms and puted, and it is in the main thoroughly sound and mementos. The Spaniards captured Brunei in 1580, the reigning sultan and his court retiring to Suai in the Baram district. The wholesome. invaders were compelled to evacuate the place, however, in conseBriinn (Czech, Rrno), the capital of the Austrian quence of the heavy losses they sustained in the numerous attempts made for its recovery. The golden age of Brunei was nevertheless margraviate and crown-land of Moravia. It has a special at an end, and there is little more of striking importance to record. charter and is the seat of the district of the same name Disputed successions and civil war, maladministration and the (consisting of the environs, with a population in 1900 of untrustworthiness of the Malay character, caused a steady decline 132,480, chiefly Czech), as well as of the Diet and proin prosperity. The East India Company started a factoiy in t le vincial authorities and of the provincial high court of justice town in the 18th century, but commerce had already decayed and the establishment was abandoned. In the early part of the 1 »th for Moravia and Austrian Silesia. Population in 1880, century Brunei was but a resort for pirates and a market for the 82,660; in 1890, 94,462—69 per cent.of whom areGerman slave trade. During the ’forties Admiral (then Captain) Keppel and 31 per cent. Czech, a reversal of the proportions preand other officers of the British navy suppressed piracy m the vailing throughout the crown-land. Population in 1900, neighbourhood. Sarawak was handed over to Raja Brooke, and, after the capture and temporary occupation of Brunei byrSir 109,346, chiefly Roman Catholic, with exception of about Thomas Cochrane, Labuan was ceded to the British empire. 1 orn 7-5 per cent. Jews and 2 per cent. Protestants. There is a this island it has always been possible to check the designs of tfie garrison of 4548. Its educational institutions include, in townspeople, and of late years a consul has been stationed there addition to the theological seminary and the polytechnic, 11 to watch affairs. Nowadays the political consequence of Brunei largely arises from the existence there of valuable seams of coal, upper and lower gymnasia and high schools (6 German and leased to the Sarawak Government, which may in the future prove 5 Czech), 13 continuation and technical schools, 6 interof great commercial importance. mediate, 34 elementary, and 17 municipal kindergarten Bruneti&re, Ferdinand (1849 ), Jrench schools. Brunn, which is sometimes styled “the Austrian critic and man of letters, was born at Toulon, 19th July Manchester,” is the most purely industrial town of the 1849. After attending a school at Marseilles, he proceeded monarchy. It has latterly maintained its position, withto Paris, and studied at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand. out any marked alteration in the character of its pi educDesiring to follow the profession of teaching, he entered tion. Its main industries are woollen manufactures and for examination at the Nicole Normale superieure, but more particularly cloth, leather, the machinery required failed, and the outbreak of war in 1870 debarred him in the textile factories, brewing, distilling and milling, from a second attempt. Having _ but small means, he and the production of sugar, oil, gloves, and hardware. turned his attention to private tuition, and at the same The workers enjoy a comparatively high degree of protime tried his hand at literary criticism. After the sperity. Five railway lines touch at Brunn, which has publication of successful articles in the Revue Bleue, he a very good connexion with Vienna. Suburban tiaffic became connected with the Revue cles Deux Mondes^ first is promoted by steam tramways and omnibuses. The as contributor, then as secretary and sub-editor, _ and fortifications of the old town have now been entirely refinally as principal editor. In 1886 he was appointed moved, giving place to handsome gardens and well-built professor of French language and literature at the Leo!e streets. The numerous new buildings in Briinn include Normale, a singular honour for one who had not passed the hall of the provincial Diet, a theatre, an industrial through the academic mill) and later he presided with museum, the polytechnic, the German gymnasium, the distinction over various conferences at the Sorbonne and Slav assembly rooms, and the German club. The racial elsewhere. He was decorated with the Legion of Honour antipathies are much less violent in Briinn than they are in 1887, and became a member of the Academy in 1893. in Prague, although the same political and national differThe published works of M. Brunetiere consist entirely of ences prevail. There is a movement in favour of the rereprinted papers and lectures. They include five series establishment of a Moravian university in the town, but of essays on French history and literature (1880-87), Le the Germans and Czechs cannot agree as to the language Roman Naturaliste (1883), Histoire et Litterature, three of instruction. See Hanak, Die K&nigliche Landes-Hauptstadt Brunn und die series (1884-86), Questions de Critique (1888), and a Umqebung (Briinn, 1880), and works in German by d’Elvkrt, Aewsecond series (1890). The first volume of L’Evolution de Briinn, TeautenGenres dans VHistoire de la Litterature, lectures in which BERGEE.wie es entstanden ist (Briinn, 1889), Detitsch, and (^ 0 N-) a formal classification, founded on the Darwinian theory, Briinnow, Franz Friedrich Ernst (1821is applied to the phenomena of literature, appeared in 1890 ; and his latest works include a series of studies 1891), German astronomer, was born in Berlin on 18th on the evolution of French lyrical poetry during the November 1821. Between the ages of eight and eighteen 19th century, and various pamphlets of a polemical he attended the Friedrich-Wilhelm Gymnasium. In nature dealing with questions of education, science, and 1839 he entered Berlin University, where he attended religion. M. Brunetiere is strictly orthodox, and his lectures in mathematics, astronomy, and physics; chemistry, political sympathies are in the main reactionary. He philosophy, and philology also occupying his attention.