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BRUNSBUTTEL — BRUNSWICK 419 After graduating as Ph.D. in 1843 lie took an active part for 19,508 Roman Catholics, the people belong almost in astronomical work at the Berlin Observatory, under entirely to the Lutheran church. The emigrants decreased the direction of the celebrated Encke, contributing numer- from 333 in 1892 to 112 in 1899. Of the births annually ous important papers on the orbits of comets and minor 10 to 11 per cent, are illegitimate. The total number of planets to the Astronomische Nachrichten. In 1847 he farms in 1895 was 58,091, of which 38,901, or 67 per was appointed director of the Diisseldorf Observatory. cent., were each less than 2^ acres, 13,929 were between During his tenure of this post he published his well-known 24 and 25 acres, 5080 between 25 and 250 acres, and 181 Memoire sur la comete elliptique de De Vico, for which he exceeded 250 acres. In 1897 the live stock embraced received the gold medal of the Amsterdam Academy. In 157,931 pigs, 149,149 sheep, 120,798 cattle, and 33,170 1851 he succeeded Galle as first assistant at the Berlin horses. The mines produced in the same year 1,057,192 Observatory. While occupying this position he computed tons of lignite, valued at .£158,550; 108,502 tons of iron, his tables of the minor planet Flora, which were followed valued at £10,800; 21,580 tons of potassium salts, valued in 1859 and 1869 by tables of two other minor planets, at £148,850; or, in all, 1,187,274 tons of the value of Victoria and Iris. In 1854 he accepted the post of £318,200 (£442,550 in 1898). There were also mined director of the new observatory of Ann Arbor, Michigan, 44,262 tons of asphalt, valued at £12,650. The proU.S.A. Here he published for several years a journal duce of the furnaces consisted of 26,285 tons of iron, entitled Astronomical Notices. In 1860 he went, as valued at £ /1,200, and 16,499 tons of sulphuric associate director of the observatory, to Albany, N.Y., acid. In 1898-99 the sugar factories and refineries prowhence he continued to issue his Astronomical Notices ; but duced 91,942 tons of sugar; the breweries, 13,530,000 in 1861 he returned to Michigan, and threw himself with gallons of beer; and the distilleries (1897) 375,850 vigour into the work of studying the astronomical and gallons of pure alcohol. The duchy had 303 miles of physical constants of the observatory and the instruments railway in 1898. As reformed bylaws of 1888 and 1899, it possessed. In 1863 he resigned the directorship of the the legislative assembly now consists of 48 members, thus Ann Arbor Observatory and returned to Germany, but elected by indirect voting—15 by the large towns, 15 by three years later, on the death of Sir W. R. Hamilton, he the country communes, and 18 by the learned professions, accepted the post of Andrews professor of astronomy in the clergy, landowners, manufacturers, and those who are the University of Dublin and Astronomer Royal of Ireland. assessed highest for income-tax. The assembly meets The first task he undertook at the Dublin Observatory every two years, and the representatives sit for four years. was the erection of an equatorial telescope to carry the The public revenue for the year 1900-01 was estimated fine object-glass which had been presented to the university at £787,500, and the public expenditure at £808,150. In by Sir James South. On the completion of this instru- addition to this the duke had a civil list of £180,630, ment he commenced his important researches on stellar derivable from domains, forests, Ac.; and there was parallax. The first, second, and third parts of the a special budget of £70,460, devoted to religion and Astronomical Observations and Researches made at Dunsink education. The public debt, of which 80 per cent, was contain the results of these labours, and include discussions incurred for the construction of railways, amounted in of the distances of the stars a Lyras, cr Draconis, Groom- 1899 to £913,317. The contribution to the imperial bridge 1830, 85 Pegasi, and Bradley 3077, and of the exchequer was fixed at £218,675 in 1900. planetary nebula H. iv. 37. In 1873 the observatory, on Dr Briinnow’s recommendation, was provided with a firstBrunswick, a town of Germany, capital of the class transit-circle which, with his usual thoroughness, he duchy, 53 miles W. by X. from Magdeburg by the railproceeded to test as a preliminary to commencing an way to Hanover. Most of the principal churches have extended programme of work with it, but in the follow- been restored since 1895 — the cathedral in 1891-92, ing year, in consequence of failing health and eyesight, St Peter’s in 1888-92, St Martin’s in 1897-99, St he resigned the post and retired to Basel. In 1880 he Catherine’s in 1887-90, St Magnus in 1877, and St removed to Vevey, and in 1889 to Heidelberg, where he Andreas in 1899 onwards. Amongst the new secular builddied on 20th August 1891. It was during his residence ings the first place is claimed by the ducal museum, built at Diisseldorf that he composed his Lehrbuch der Sphdr- in 1883-87, in which are preserved the pictures collected ischen Astronomic, on which, more perhaps than on any by Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, of his other works, his reputation will rest. Its import- a collection especially valuable for its Dutch canvases; ance was immediately recognized in Germany and other it also contains collections of jewellery and Italian majolica. countries. In 1860 Part I. was translated into English Other edifices are the post office (1878-81); synagogue by Main, the Radcliffe Observer at Oxford; in 1865 an (1875); the new town house, an Early Gothic sandstone English translation of the whole work by Briinnow him- structure (1896-99); and the technical high school, an self appeared; while the fact that it reached a fourth Italian Renaissance building of 1877, furnishing quarters edition, and has also been translated into French, Russian, for the Caroline College, and for various scientific collecItalian, and Spanish, proves how widely its value has tions. Brunswick also possesses the Dankwarderode, a been appreciated. (a. a. r.*) two-storeyed Romanesque building put up in 1884 on the Brunsbiittel, a seaport town of Prussia, province site of part of the ancient citadel of the same name, which of Schleswig-Holstein, on the N. bank of the Elbe, 60 miles was destroyed by fire in 1873 ; two town halls, one conN.W. from Hamburg. It is the W. extremity of the North- taining a picture gallery, the other the municipal archives Sea-Baltic Canal, which is closed at that end by double and municipal library ; the municipal museum, in the old locks, estimated to have cost <£771,750. Here also are an town house since 1899; the national museum; an anatomical inner harbour, 1640 feet long and 656 feet wide, a coaling museum ; botanical gardens; and several parks ; teachers’ station, and a small harbour for the tugs and other vessels seminaries, deaf and dumb and blind asylums; and a belonging to the canal company. Population (1900), 2151. national school of arboriculture. Nor should the many fine old houses be overlooked. There are also several Brunswick (German, Braunschweig^), a duchy monuments, the principal being those erected to Henry of Germany; area, 1424 sq. miles; population (1885) the Lion, a bronze fountain (1874); to the mathematician 372,452, (1895) 434,213, of whom 215,772 were males Gauss (1880), who was born here in 1777 (died 1855); to and 218,441 females; density, 304-9 to the sq. mile. Except Lessing, by Rietschel (1853), Lessing having died here in