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the products of combustion. Steel wire brushes are also 1781 ; two bronze equestrian statues (1894) of Dukes used for cleaning scale from the interior surface of a Charles William and Frederick William ; a bronze monu- boiler, or for removing the sand from the surface of a ment to Franz Abt (1891); and a monument of the casting. Occasionally such brushes are revolved in a war of 1870-71. Brunswick is the seat of varied in- machine, for more convenient use on the article to be dustries, the most noteworthy of which are sugar-re- cleaned or polished. fining, jute-spinning, manufacture of sewing and other A novel and effective use" is made of a steel wire brush in machines, hardware, tobacco, beer, musical instruments, utilizing it to form the active principle of what is known as colours, lacquered wares, gloves, &c., printing and publish- Snver’s patent elastic clutch or coupling. The apparatus is tor ing, distilling, and gardening. Brunswick is famous for the purpose of coupling up or disconnecting a steam engine from its sausages, honey cakes, asparagus, and Mumme beer. a line of shafting used for transmitting power to machinery ; or may be used for coupling an engine and dynamo together, or Owing to its central situation, at the intersection of the it other similar purpose. The clutch consists essentially of two great route between the middle Rhine (Frankfort) and the discs, the adjacent faces of which are provided, one with a ring middle Elbe (Magdeburg), and that between Hamburg of brushes made of flat steel wire, the other with a number of serrated teeth. One of the discs is movable longitudinally and Leipzig, it is also the seat of a very active trade. The finely its shaft, and with the brushes clear of the serrations, the musician Spohr was born here in 1784 (died 1859). Popula- on clutch is free. On closing together, which may be done with the tion (1885), 85,174; (1890), 101,047 ; (1895), 115,138; engine running at speed, the elasticity of the brush permits the motion to be imparted gradually and without shock to the (1900), 128,177. /T rr * standing part, until both rotate and are locked together, these See Braunschweig, einst undjetzt {Brmis-w., 1897). VJ- 1clutches are very powerful, and are capable of transmitting as Brunswick, capital of Glynn county, Georgia, much as 3000 horse-power. U.S.A., situated on St Simon Sound, 8 miles from the (2) Electric.—An apparatus for conducting the electric sea. It is a seaport of some importance, particularly m current from the stationary portion, the field magnets, to the export of cotton, has two railways, the Southern and the revolving part, the armature, of an electric dynamo or the Plant System, and has considerable manufactures ot motor, is termed a “brush.” There are usually two brushes yellow-pine lumber. Population (1880), 2891 ; (1890), to each dynamo or motor, and they are placed diametri8459; (1900), 9081. cally opposite, lightly touching the commutator of the Brunswick, a city of Cumberland county, Maine, armature U.S.A., on the south bank of Androscoggin river, near its It is important that there should be good metallic contact mouth. It is the terminus of several branches of the between the brushes and the commutator m order to avoid Maine Central railway. Bowdoin College, situated here, sparking, and at the same time the frictional resistance resulting the contact must be at a minimum. To effect this result had in 1900 (including the Medical School of Maine), 34 from brushes are variously made. The kind of brush frequently use professors and instructors and 356 students. Population consists of a number of copper wires laid side by side and soldered together at one end, where the brush is held. Brushes are also (1880), 5384; (1890), 6012; (1900), 5210. of strips of spongy copper cut like a comb, which gi'e a Brusa, or Broussa, the capital of the Khudavendikiar made number of bearing points on the commutator. Very good results vildyet of Asia Minor, which includes parts _ of ancient are obtained from brushes made of copper gauze wound closely Mysia, Bithynia, and Phrygia, and extends in a south- until it takes the exterior form of a rectangular block, which is easterly direction from Mudania, on the Sea of Marmora, held radially7 in a spring holder, and bears at the end on t e commutator In place of the gauze block, hard carbon blocks are to Afiiin Kara-hissar on the Smyrna-Koma railway. ILe frequently used and form the “brushes.” (G. H. Ba.) vilayet is one of the most important in Asiatic lurkey, Brussels (French, Bruxelles; Flemish, Brussel)^ has great mineral and agricultural wealth, many mineral springs, large forests, and valuable industries. It expoits capital of Belgium and of the province of Brabant, in 50° 51' cereals, silk, cotton, opium, tobacco, olive oil meerschaum, FT. lat., 4° 22' E. long., partly in the low-lying plain boracite, &c. The Ismid-Angora and Eskishehr-Koma traversed from S. to N. by the Senne, partly. on. hills railways pass through the province. Population of the rising to the E. The ancient contour of the city is inprovince, 1,600,000 (Moslems, 1,280,000; Christians, dicated by a line of fine boulevards occupying the place of its old fortifications. Beyond that circuit it has absorbed 317,000; Jews, 3000). The city stretches along the lower slopes of the Mysian Olympus the neighbouring communes, by the laying out on the E. of the Avenue Louise, leading to the Bois de la Cambre, or Keshish Dagh, occupying a position above the valley of tl NiKder (Odrysses) not unlike that of Great Malvern above the vale and also of the Park, with the Palace du Cinquantenaire, in of the Severn. It is divided by ravines into three quarters, and m which were held the Exhibitions of 1880, 1888, and 189 G the centre, on a bold terrace of rock, stood Pnm, built by l iuhias and long the capital of the Bithyman kings The prosperity of In 1900 the city was extended on the N.W., where the Prusa, under Rome, is clear from the letters of Pliny the younger lands near by the canal of Willebroeck were annexed for The modern town has clean streets and good roads made the accommodation of shipping establishments. ' The eight by Ahmed Vefyk Pasha when Yah, and it contains mosques communes that immediately surround the city are those and tombs of great historic and architectural interest ; the more important are those of Sultans Murad I., Bayezid L, of St Josse-ten-Noode, Schaerbeek, and Laeken on the JN.; Muhammad L, and Murad II., 1360-1451, and the Ulu Jann. Etterbeek and Ixelles on the E.; St Gilles on the b.; The mosques show traces of Byzantine, Persian and Arab influence Anderlecht and Molenbeek-St-Jean on the W. Ihese in their plan, architecture, and decorative details. The circula communes form, with Brussels, practically one vast town, church of St Elias, in which the first two sultans Osman and without visible sign of their several boundaries Since Orkhan were buried, was destroyed by fire and earthquake, and rebuilt ’by Ahmed Vefyk Pasha. There are m the town an 1875 they have experienced a considerable development American mission and school, and a British orphanage Si k from the overflow of the population of Brussels, and stuffs towels, burnus, carpets, felt prayer-carpets embroidered silk and gold, are manufactured, and there are several factories m enjoy in fact, all the advantages of the capital without Thus Brussels is a spacious which silk is spun for export and home consumption. The hot sharing its burdens. iron and sulphur springs near Brusa, varying m temperature from and handsome city, clean, healthy, and attractive to 112= F., are by stilla much used. town There is connected with visitors, more especially since several of the old quarters ., to. 178° XTinKnia railway and The a road. is a British insanitary and crowded, have given way to well-aired fiSconml. Population, 75,000 (Moslems, 40,000; Christians, streets and squares. This process of transformation dates 33,000 ; Jews, 2000). (C. . .) from 1868, when, to remedy the constant exhalations an Brushes. (1) IFire.—Brushes with tufts formed of frequent inundations of the Senne, the course of that river steel wire are used for cleaning tubes and flues of steam in its passage through the city was enclosed by a great boilers, for the purpose of removing the scale formed by