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426

BUCHHOLZ—BUCKINGHAMSHIRE

population was only 8669. The following table gives the numbers who made him his literary executor. In 1864 he was of marriages, births, and deaths, with the number of illegitimate offered by Bismarck, and accepted, a high position in births, for 1880, 1890, and 1898 the Prussian Foreign Office. The reasons that led him Illegitimate Birtlis. Year. Marriages. Births. Deaths. to a step which involved so complete a break with Male. Female. his earlier friends and associations are not clearly 106 142 known. From this time till his death he acted as 2801 4875 906 1880 112 108 2645 4529 Bismarck’s secretary, and was the man who probably 1890 1038 75 104 2464 4348 1898 1174 enjoyed the greatest amount of his confidence. It was he who drew up the text of the constitution of the The number of marriages in 1899 was 1203, of births 4385, and North German Confederation; in 1870 he was sent on of deaths 2649. „ j j *1. a a very confidential mission to Spain in connexion with The following table gives the marriage-, birth-, and death-rates with the percentage of illegitimate births for a series of years : the Hohenzollern candidature for the Spanish crown ; he assisted Bismarck at the final negotiations for the treaty of 1870-79. 1880. 1880-89. 1890. 1888-97. 1898. Frankfort, and was one of the secretaries to the Berlin 12-8 11-6 12-3 127 12-7 13-8 Marriage-rate Congress ; he also assisted Bismarck in the composition of 33-2 31-2 30-8 277 28-1 25-5 Birth-rate . his memoirs. Bucher, who was a man of great ability, 19-0 17-9 17‘0 16-2 15-4 14-5 Death-rate . 5'0 4'9 i 4-5 4-1 5-1 had considerable influence, which was especially directed Percentage of il- 5-4 legitimacy against the economic doctrines of the Liberals; in 1881 he published a pamphlet criticizing the influence and prinBoth the birth-rate and the death-rate were below the average ciples of the Cobden Club. He identified himself completely for England. In 1891 there were in the county 626 natives ot Scotland, 496 natives of Ireland, and 273 foreigners. _ with Bismarck’s later commercial and colonial policy, and Constitution and Government.—The ancient county is divided probably had much to do with introducing it, and he did much to encourage anti-British feeling in Germany. He into three parliamentary divisions, and it also includes part ot the parliamentary borough of Windsor The administrative died at Glion, in Switzerland, on 12th October 1892. county contains two municipal boroughs, Buckingham and Chip Heinrich v. Poschinger. Ein Jfier: Lothar Buchers Leben ping Wycombe. The following are urban districts: Aylesbury, und Werke, 3 vols. Berlin, 1890.—Busch. Bismarck: some Beaconsfield, Chesham, Eton, Fenny Stratford, Lmslade, Marlow, Newport Pagnell, and Slough. The county is in the midland Secret Pages of his History. London, 1898. (j. W. He.) circuit, and spring and summer sessions are held at Aylesbury. Buchholz, a town of Germany, on the Sehma, 18 The boroughs of Buckingham and Chipping Mycombe have miles S. by E. of Chemnitz by rail, in the circle of separate commissions of the peace. The ancient county, _ which Zwickau, kingdom of Saxony. There is a school^ for is in the diocese of Oxford, contains 207 entire ecclesiastical or districts with parts of others. , ,, • 1 instruction in lace-making, an industry dating from 1589, narishes Education.—Eton college is within the county, and there is a and now counting over 80 factories. Population (1890), board school for deaf children at Chipping Wycombe. The number of elementary schools on 31st August 1899 was 257, of which 67 were 7808; (1900), 8402. board schools, and 190 voluntary, the latter including 173 Church Buckie, a fishing town and police burgh and rail- of England schools, 2 Wesleyan, 3 Roman Catholic, and 12 way station of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Moray 1 ii th, “ British and other.” The average attendance at board schools 11 727 and at voluntary schools 20,006. The total school at the mouth of the Buckie burn, about 21 miles W. of was board receipts for the year ending ,29th September 1899 were Banff. It attracts one of the largest Scottish fleets in the £38,315. The income under the Agricultural Rates Act was over herring season, and is also the chief seat of line fishing in £l Aqriculture.—TtxQ are considerable varieties of soil. On the Scotland. The value of the fish landed in 1899 was £34,247, and the port had 232 boats of 6106 tons. There lower grounds, especially in the vale of Aylesbury, it is remarkfertile, but on the hills it is usually poor and_ thin. Ihe are two harbours, one of 9 acres, with half a mile, of ably district round Aylesbury is still famous for its ducks, large quayage. There are engineering works and distilleries. numbers being fattened for the London market. About elevenA literary institute contains library and recreation rooms. twelfths of the total area of the county is under cultivation, and ot Population (1891), 5849 ; (1901), 6541. (See Banffshire this more than three-fifths is in permanent pasture, which is graduallv increasing. Over 3500 acres are under orchards, and about for statistics of fishing district.) 32 000 acres under woods. The acreage under corn crops, an Buckingham, a municipal borough and market especially that under wheat, has within recent years greatly decreased. While wheat in 1880 occupied 50,391 acres, its avertown of Buckinghamshire, England, 61 miles N.W. of age acreage is now only about 35,000. Turnips and swedes are London by rail, on the Ouse, in (since 1885) the Northern the principal green crops, cattle being chiefly kept both for feedparliamentary division of the county. Milk-condensing ing and for dairy purposes. The following table gii-es the lai0e divisions of the cultivated area at intervals of five years and the preparation of artificial manure are recently intro- main from 1880 :— duced industries. Area, 5007 acres; population (1881), Total Acre3585; (1891), 3364; (1901), 3151. Permanent Fallow. Green under Com Year. age Crops. Clover. Pasture. Cultiva- Crops. Buckinghamshire, a south midland county tion. of England, bounded on the N. by Northampton, on the 405,899 125,035 32,536 31,040 200,774 116,514 1880 W. by Oxford, on the S. by the Thames, and on the E. 216,461 J 9,137 1885 408,361 115,953 34,740 32,070 | 9,012 by Middlesex, Hertford, and Bedford. 1890 405,364 107,476 29,661 30,491 228,456 1895 401,232 95,437 26,819 31,901 235,850 ,10,486 Area and Population.—Tiho area of the ancient and administra1900 400,276 92,855 25,598 31,470 243,887 5,872 tive countv. as given in the census returns, is 475,694 acres, or 743 square miles. Population (1881), 176,155 ; (1891), 185,284 The following table gives particulars regarding the principal (of whom 91,195 were males, and 94,089 females, the number of live stock for the same years :— uersons per square mile being 249, and of acres to a person 2 57); (1901) 195 534 In 1895 the area of the administrative county or Heifers Total Cows Total Pigs. was slightly altered, part of the parish of Ibstone, and in Milk or in Sheep. Year. Horses. Cattle. Calf. the parish of Stokenchurch in Oxford being transferred to Buckingham, while part of the parish of Kingsey in Buckingham 195,764 31,170 28,208 1880 17,794 68,180 was transferred to Oxford. The area of the registratiop is 230,152 37,429 16 2 county 0f 31,734 76.912 17,753 1885 410,242 acres, with a population m 1891 ot 4’^ ’ _ 213,533 38,952 30,500 1890 17,503 69.913 43 190 were urban, and 121,252 rural; and in 1901 of 173,060. 192,609 40,047 28,645 66,153 18,483 1895 Within this area the increase of population between 1881 and 195,567 28,098 31,308 75,183 18,182 1900 1891 was 5-57 per cent. The excess of births over deaths between 1881 and 1891 was 21,762, but the increase of the resident