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BUCKNER--BUDAPEST 427 Industries and Trade.—According to the annual report of the 3201 of the Greek orthodox faith. Between 1870 and inspector of factories for 1898 (1900), the total number of persons employed in textile and non-textile factories and workshops in 1900 the proportion of Roman Catholics declined from 1897 was 13,280, as compared with 12,568 in 1896. The number /2‘3 to 60‘7 per cent., of Jews rose from 16'6 to 23- 6 of persons employed in non-textile factories in 1897 was 10,313, per cent., and of Protestants from 10T per cent to 14 2. between 1895 and 1896 there was an increase of 10'6 per cent., and between 1896 and 189/ an increase ol 6*2 per cent, j as many Hungarian was given as the mother tongue of 559,965; as 379o were employed in the manufacture of machines, convey- 98,515 being returned as German and 24,091 as Slovaks, ances, tools, &c., and 2095 in the manufacture of paper. In work- a branch, of the same race as the Czechs of Austria. shops 2962 persons were employed, of whom 1537 were employed The remainder (20,877) was composed of Croatians, Serin the furniture industry. The clothing, lace, and straw-plait Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, manufactures continue to prosper, and there is a thriving trade, vians, especially at High Wycombe, in various articles of turnery, such Ac. The great increase of the Magyar element must not as chairs, spades, and bowls, from beech and other hard woods. be regarded as of purely ethnographic significance. The Of clay 8680 tons were raised in 1899. adoption of a Hungarian name or of the Hungarian Authorities.—The original standard history is the laborious and sumptuous work of Lipscomb, 4 vols., London, 1847. A later language as the mother-tongue is often a political confeswork is Gibb, Buckingham, Aylesbury, 1878-82. Mention may sion, of faith,, sometimes due to the persuasive influence of also be made of the same author’s Worthies of Buckingham, Ayles- official superiors. The Jewish contribution amounted to bury, 1886 ; and his Buckingham Miscellany, Aylesbury, 1891. 3 5'4 per cent., which was still higher in previous years. Other works are Sheahan, History and Topography of Bucking- Of the 733,358 inhabitants of Budapest in 1900, includhamshire, London, 1862; Kennedy, Birds of Berkshire and ing the garrison of 16,000 men, 79-6 per cent, were Buckinghamshire, Eton, 1868 ; and G. S. Roscoe, Buckingham Magyars, 14 per cent. Germans, and 3‘4 per cent. Slovaks, Sketches, London, 1891. the balance being made up of other nationalities. The Buckner, Samuel Bolivar (1823 ), proportion of Roman Catholics was 60‘7 per cent, (in American soldier, was born in Hart county, Kentucky, on 1890, 64’7 per cent.), of Protestants of the Helvetic and 1st April 1823, and graduated at West Point in 1844. Confessions, 14-8 per cent, (in 1890, 13 per He resigned from the army in March 1855 to practise law Augsburg cent.), of Jews, 23’6 per cent, (in 1890, 21 per cent.), and politics. He was adjutant-general and commander of of other creeds D5 per cent. Of the nationalities the state guard of Kentucky, in the Southern interest, May- and the Magyars have the largest increase, and of the creeds July 1861. Presently, under a commission, he invaded his the Helvetic Confession. The Roman Catholics show the native state. As brigadier in command he surrendered Port Donelson to General Grant on 16th February 1862, smallest proportional increase. The Germans and Slovaks with 16,000 troops and vast stores, his superiors Floyd and have actually declined in number, the former by 17,058 Pillow escaping. After his exchange as a prisoner of war, and the latter by 3035 souls. he fought under General Bragg at Murfreesboro’ and , The marriage-rate, which averaged 7‘2 per thousand in the Chickamauga. After the war he served as governor of seventies, rose to 8’6 in the ’eighties, and to 9'5 in the period Kentucky (1887-91), and in 1896 was candidate of the 1891-96. In 1897 and 1898 it was 9‘6 per thousand. Between 1874 and 1898 the mixed marriages increased from 15‘8 per cent, gold Democrats for vice-president of the United States. to 24 7 per cent, of the total number. During the same period Bucyrus, capital of Crawford county, Ohio, U.S.A. the birth-rate diminished from 44'5 to 32'6 per thousand. Of It is situated in the northern part of the state, 62 miles these 29 to 30 per cent, were illegitimate. The decline in the death-rate is one of the most striking features in the pronorth of Columbus, on Sandusky river and on the Penn- gress of Budapest, sinking from 43-4 per thousand in 1874 to 20-6 sylvania and the Ohio Central railways, at an altitude of per thousand in 1900. In addition to the increased influx of per991 feet. Its manufactures consist largely of agricultural sons in the prime ol life, this is due largely to the improved watertools and machines. Population (1880), 3835 : (18901 supply and better sanitary conditions generally, including increased hospital accommodation. 5974; (1900), 6560. The progress of education, the direction and development of Buczacz, a district - town in Eastern Galicia, which have been governed by the desire to promote Magyar national has kept pace with that made in other departments Austria, on the Strypa, a tributary of the Dniester. sentiment, of public life. An important achievement in this respect is the It is memorable in the Turkish wars of the latter half of retention in Hungarian military academies of the young officers the 17th century and for the Treaty of Buczacz in 1672 who were previously educated in Austria. In 1898 the Buda{Ency. Brit. xix. 295). It possesses the ruins of an old pest University was attended by 5382 students (about 2000 in ’eighties), and the Polytechnic by 1569 (about 1000 in the •castle and a chateau belonging to the Potocki family. the ’eighties). A further large increase of the attendance is to be antiPopulation (1890), 11,096; (1900), 11,504 (Polish). cipated from special measures latterly adopted with the object of Hungarian students at home. The number who attend Buda (German, Ofen), formerly a royal free town of keeping the Austrian universities, and especially that of Vienna, is already Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube, opposite Pest diminishing. A new addition to the educational institutions is (on the left bank). It was incorporated with Pest in 1873. the Oriental Academy, organized in 1899. Between 1870 and 1891 Since then the two towns, together with O-Buda (Alt-Ofen, the proportion of children attending school more than doubled. the Aquincum of the Eomans) and Steinbruch, form one The number of elementary schools has increased from 35 in 1861 to 157_in 1899, and that of intermediate schools from one in 1870 municipality under the official name of Budapest. to 16 in 1899. The illiterates over six years of age, who formed 27-8 percent, of the population in 1870, fell to 23 U in 1881 and Budapest, the capital of Hungary and residence to lO'G per cent, in 1891. This percentage is lowest among the •of the king, situated on both banks of the Danube, 140 Magyar and highest among the Slav inhabitants; lowest among the miles S.E. of Vienna. It is the seat of the government, Jews and Protestants and highest among the Roman Catholics. parliament, and the supreme courts, and the headquarters There are 18 political daily papers, of which 5 are in the German of the commander of the Hungarian Landwehr or Houveds. language. Out of a total (in 1898) of 413 periodicals, 327 were in 36 in German, the remainder consisting of polyglot The area, which is now 77| square miles, has been but Hungarian, publications, &c. slightly increased since the incorporation of the two towns andOfSlav the eight theatres, two are subsidized by the State and one in 1873. Population (1880), including the garrison, by the municipality. The performances are almost exclusively in Hungarian, the exceptions being the occasional appearance 370,767; (1890), 506,384; (1900), 733,358, an increase m the decade of 44'82 per cent, as compared with 36-57 of French, Italian, and other foreign artists. Performances in German are under a popular taboo, which effectually excludes in the preceding ten years. Of this total, 427,112 were them from the theatres, although sometimes given in a music-hall, Roman Catholics and 5386 Catholics of the Greek rite; where they have more than once led to hostile demonstrations. 166,198 Jews (in 1869, 42,000); 62,837 Protestants of Among the other institutions should be mentioned fourteen lodges the Helvetic and 37,170 of the Augsburg Confessions, and of Freemasons. These are forbidden to associate or hold meetings in Austria.