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latter including the proceeds of the various loans), from the ideas by the establishment of agricultural schools, the creation of the principality to the beginning ol the linancial year appointment of itinerant professors and inspectois, the 1896 was 55,823,574 leva. Arrears of taxation are considerable : distribution of better kinds of seeds, improved implements, the outstanding amount at the beginning of 1897 was 16,259,340 &c. Efforts have latterly been made to improve the breeds leva. of native cattle and horses, and stallions have been inThe organization of the military forces of' the princi- troduced from Hungary and distributed throughout the pality was undertaken by Russian officers, who for a period country. Oxen and buffaloes are the principal animals of of six years (1879-85) occupied all the higher Army aad p0sts in the army. In Eastern Rumelia during draught; the buffalo, which was apparently introduced from Asia in remote times, is much prized by the peasants Navy ' the same period the “militia” was instructed for its patience and strength; it is, however, somewhat by foreign officers; after the union it was merged in the delicate and requires much care. In the eastern districts Bulgarian army. The present organization is based on camels are also employed. The Bulgarian horses are the law of 27 th December 1891. The army consists of : small, but remarkably hardy, wiry, and intelligent; they (1) the active or field army (deistvuyushta armia) divided are as a rule unfitted for draught , and cavalry purposes. into (i.) the active army; (ii.) the active army reserve; The best sheep are found in the district of Karnobat in (2) the reserve army {reservna armid); (3) the opltchenie Eastern Rumelia. The number of goats in the country or militia : the ‘two former may operate outside the princi- has considerably declined in recent years, the Government pality, the latter only within the frontier for purposes of having imposed a relatively, high tax on these animals defence. In time of peace the active army (i.) alone is on owing to the injury they inflict on young trees. The a permanent footing. The peace strength in 1899 was average price of oxen is £5 each, draught oxen £12 the 2154 officers, 38,987 men, and 5764 horses, the active pair, buffaloes £14 the pair, cows £2, horses £6, sheep, army being composed of 6 divisions of infantry, 5 regi- 7s., goats 5s. each. The principal cereals are wheat, ments of cavalry, 7 regiments of artillery, and 1 regiment maize, rye, barley, oats, and millet. The cultivation of of engineers, together with artillery garrisons, &c. T e maize is increasing in the Danubian and eastern. districts. total effective in time of war is 152,938 officers and men, Rice-fields are-found in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis. with 84,000 officers and men of the reserve army; grand Cereals represent about 80 per cent, of the total exports. total 236,938, exclusive of the opltchenie, which as yet is Besides grain, Bulgaria produces wine, tobacco, attar of without equipment. Military service is obligatory, but roses, silk, and cotton. The quality of the grape is Moslems may claim exemption on payment of <£20; the excellent, and could the peasants be induced to abandon age of recruitment in time of peace is nineteen, in time their highly primitive mode of wine-making the Bulgarian of war eighteen. Each conscript serves two years in vintages would rank among the best European growths. the infantry and subsequently eight years in the active The tobacco, which is not of the highest quality, is grown reserve or three years in the other corps and six years m in considerable quantities for home consumption, and only the active reserve; he is then liable to seven years service an insignificant amount is exported. The best tobaccoin the reserve army and finally passes into the opltchenie. fields in Bulgaria are on the northern slopes of Rhodope, The Bulgarian peasant makes an admirable soldier but the southern declivity, which produces the famous courageous, obedient, persevering, and inured to hardship ; Kavala growth, is more adapted to the cultivation of the the officers are painstaking and devoted to their duties. plant. The rose-fields of Kazanlyk and Karlovo lie in a The hours of drill, &c., are perhaps excessive, but the sheltered valley between the Balkans and the parallel results are satisfactory. The cavalry is the least efficient chains of the Sredna Gora and Karaja Dagh. About branch of the service. Under the new arrangements for 6000 pounds of the rose-essence are annually exported, mobilization the reserve army will be organized in twelve valuing from £12 to £14 per pound. Sericulture, formerly regiments corresponding with those of the active army. an important industry, has declined owing to disease among The active army is furnished with the '315 Mannlicher the silkworms, but efforts are being made to revive it with magazine rifle, the reserve with the Mannlicher and Ber- promise of success. Cotton is grown in the southern dan; the artillery mainly consists of 8'7- and 7-5-cm. districts of Eastern Rumelia. Krupp guns and 12-cm. Krupp howitzers. The army is Peasant proprietorship is universal, the small freeholds averaglocally distributed in six divisions, with headquarters at ing about 18 acres each. There are scarcely any large estates owned Sofia, Philippopolis, Sliven, Shumen, Russe, and Vidm. by individuals, but some of the monasteries possess considerable The last-named is the only fortified town, but defensive domains. The large tchiftiks or forms, formerly belonging to landowners, have been divided among the peasants, llie works are in progress at Sofia and Slivnitza, and an en- Turkish rural proprietors enjoy the right of pasturing their cattle on the trenched camp has been formed at Belogradchik. . The common lands belonging to each village and of cutting wood naval force of the principality consists of a flotilla stationed the State forests. They live in a condition of rude coinfort and is practically unknown, except in the towns. A peculiarly at Russe and Varna. It is composed of 1 prince’s yacht novertv mteresting'feature in Bulgarian agricultural life is the (800 tons), 3 gunboats, 3 torpedo boats, and 10 other or house-community, a patriarchal institution apparently datmg small vessels, with a complement of 69 officers and 488 from prehistoric times. Family groups, sometimes nuinberm several dozen persons, dwell together on a farm m the observance men. 1( y Agriculture, the main source of wealth to the. country, of strictly communistic principles. The assodation is ™ , a house-father (domakin, stareishma), and a house-mother (doma is still in an extremely primitive condition. The ignorance linia) who assign to the members their respective tasks, in and conservatism of the peasantry, the habits to the farm work the members often practise varl Agricul- engendered by wide-spread insecurity and the addition trades, the proceeds of which are paid into the general treasury. ture ' fear of official rapacity under Turkish rule, in- The community sometimes includes a priest, whose &c , augment the common fund. The national apti sufficiency of communications, want of capital, and in baptisms ^combination if also displayed in the associations of market some districts sparsity of population, , have all tended to gardeners (gradinarski druzhmi, talfi), who in iu cultivating gal(a® d retard the development of this most important industry. their native districts for the purpose of in the neighbourhood of some town either , ^“^^f th^ The peasants cling to traditional usage, and look with in the autumn, when they divide the pro suspicion on modern implements and new-fangled modes returning enterprise ; the number of persons annually thus engaged pro of production. The plough is of a primeval type rotation ably exceeds 10,000. of crops is only partially practised, and the use of manure The development of manufacturing enterprise on a large is almost unknown. The Government has sedulously scale has been retarded by want of capital. The prmcipa endeavoured to introduce more enlightened methods and