BUNBURY—BUNSEN 461 a pupil of Hauptmann. In 1849 more or less revolu- India, lying between the North-West and the Central tionary politics took possession of him. In the Berlin Provinces. Historically it includes the five British Abendpost, a democratic journal, the young aristocrat districts of Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur, and poured forth his opinions, which were strongly coloured Banda, which now form part of the Allahabad division by Wagner’s Art and Revolution* Wagner’s influence of the North-West Provinces, but politically it is restricted was musical no less than political, for a performance of to a collection of native states, under the Bundelkhand Lohengrin under Liszt at Weimar in 1850 completed von agency. These number about thirty in all, with a total Billow’s determination to abandon a legal career. From area of 10,241 square miles; total population (1891), Weimar he went to Zurich, where the exile Wagner 1,008,053, being an average of 145 persons per square instructed him in the elements of conducting. But he mile; (1901), 1,309,323, showing a decrease of 13 per soon returned to Weimar and Liszt; and in 1853 he made cent., due to the effects of famine. The most important of his first concert tour, which extended from Vienna to the states are Orchha, Panna, Chatarpur, Datia, Charkhari, Berlin. Next he became principal professor of the piano Bijawar, and Ajaigarh. Up to the present no railway at the Stern Academy, and married in his twenty-eighth traverses the country. A garrison of all arms is stationed year Liszt’s daughter Cosima. For the following nine at Nowgong, where also there is a Rajkumar college for years von Biilow laboured incessantly in Berlin as pianist, training the sons of the chiefs according to the methods conductor, and writer of musical and political articles! of an English public school, with 17 pupils in 1897-98. Thence he removed to Munich, where, thanks to Wagner, Bundi, or Boondee, a native state of India, in the he had been appointed Hof-kapellmeister to Ludwig II.! and chief of the Conservatorium. There, too, he organized Rajputana, agency, lying on the north-east of the river model performances of Tristan and Die Meistersinger. In Chambal, in a hilly tract historically known as Haraoti. 1869 his marriage was dissolved, his wife subsequently It has an area of 2245 square miles. In 1881 the population marrying Wagner, an incident which, while preventing was .254,701 , in 1891 it was 295,675, giving an average Billow from revisiting Bayreuth, never dimmed his density of 133 persons per square mile; in 1901, 171,227, enthusiasm for Wagner’s dramas. After a temporary stay showing a decrease of 42 per cent., due to the’effects of in 1 lorence, Biilow set out on tour again as a pianist, famine. The estimated gross revenue in 1897-98 was visiting most European countries as well as the United Rs.7,00,000; the tribute, Rs.1,20,000. There is no railStates of America, before taking up the post of conductor way, but the metalled road from Kotah to the British at Hanover, and, later, at Meiningen, where he raised the cantonment of Deoli passes through the state. In orchestra to a pitch of excellence till then unparalleled. 1897-98 the mint coined no less than Rs.3,17,686. The In 1885 he resigned the Meiningen office, and conducted a town of Bundi had a population in 1891 of 22,544. number of concerts in Russia and Germany. At Frank- A school for the education of boys of high rank was fort he held classes on Liszt s lines for the higher develop- opened in 1897. ment of piano - playing. He constantly visited England, Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm von (1811for the last time in 1888, in which year he went to live in 1898), German chemist, was born in Gottingen on 31st Hamburg. Nevertheless he continued to conduct the March. 1811. He studied at the university in that town, Berlin Philharmonic Concerts. He died at Cairo, on 13th becoming privat docent in 1833. Three years later he l ebruary 1894. . Billow will long be remembered as a was appointed to succeed Wohler in the chair of Chemistry pianist of the highest order of intellectual attainment, at the Polytechnic School of Cassel, and in 1838 moved to an artist of remarkably catholic tastes, a passionate Marburg, where he remained some thirteen years. Then, hater of humbug and affectation, and one of the greatest for a. short-time, he was professor of Chemistry at Breslau, orchestral conductors the world has seen. He had a ready and in 1852 accepted a similar position at Heidelberg, pen, and a biting, incisive, sometimes almost rude wit, where he spent the rest of his days, in spite of an urgent yet of his kindness of heart and generosity countless tales invitation to migrate to Berlin as successor to Mitscherwere told. His compositions are few and unimportant; lich.. He retired from active work in 1889, and died at his arrangement of some of Wagner’s dramas for the piano- Gottingen on 16th August 1898. The first research, forte are exceedingly difficult. (r. h. l.) by which attention was drawn to Bunsen’s abilities, was concerned with the cacodyl compounds of arsenic. It was Bunbury, a seaport and municipality in Western begun in 1837 at Cassel, and during the six years he Australia, in the county of Wellington, 112 miles by road spent upon it he not only lost the sight of one eye ►S. by W. of Perth, with which it is connected by rail. through an explosion, but nearly killed himself by The harbour, known as Koombanah Bay, is sheltered by a arsenical poisoning. It represents almost his only excoral reef, on which a breakwater was begun by the Govern- cursion into organic chemistry, and apart from its accuracy ment in 189<. In 1900 it had a length of over 3200 and completeness it is of historical interest in the developfeet. Tin, timber, sandal-wood, horses, and produce are ment of that branch of science as being the forerunner of shipped. Its population in 1891 was 572; in 1900 about the fruitful investigations on the organo-metallic comoiJUO. pounds subsequently carried out by his English pupil, Bundaberg', a river port and municipality in Edward Frankland. Simultaneously with his work on Queensland, Australia, in the county of Cook, on the cacodyl, he was studying the composition of the gases river Burnett, 10 miles from its mouth, 70 miles by rail given off from blast furnaces. He showed that in German N. of Maryborough on the line from Brisbane. A furnaces nearly half the heat yielded by the fuel was being mile below the town, at Millaquin, is the largest allowed to escape with the waste gases, and when he came sugar factory in the colony. There are numerous other to England, and in conjunction with Lyon Playfair insugar factories and mills in the district. The staple vestigated the conditions obtaining in English furnaces, exports are sugar (about 35,000 tons annually), golden he found the waste to amount to over 80 per cent. These syrup, and timber. The climate is remarkably healthy, researches marked a stage in the application of scientific population (1891), 3982; of town and district (1900), principles to the manufacture of iron, and they led also to the elaboration of Bunsen’s famous methods of measuring gaseous volumes, &c., which form the subject of the only Bundelkhand, a tract of country in Central book he ever published. In 1841 he invented the carbon-
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