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Burckhardt, Jakob (1818-1897), Swiss writer, miles, with, an intensity of 50 candles. The light occults every ten seconds, seven seconds’ visibility and three was born at Basel, 25th May 1818. He devoted himself seconds’ obscuration, the occultations being actuated by to the study of history and of art, and was successively a double valve arrangement. In the body of the apparatus professor at Basel, at Zurich, and at Basel again. His there is a gas chamber having sufficient capacity, in the first work of importance was published in 1842, and case of an occulting light, for maintain- treated of the works of art in Flemish cities. In 1853 he ing the flame in action for seven produced The Age of Constantine the Great, a valuable seconds, and by means of a by-pass a study of the decay of ancient civilization. In 1855 apjet remains alight in the centre of the peared his Cicerone, a guide to objects of art and archiburner. During the period of three tecture in Italy which, by revision in numerous successive ' seconds’ darkness the gas chamber is editions, has become indispensable to the aesthetic traveller. re-charged, and at the end of that This labour naturally directed Burckhardt’s attention to period is again opened to the main the renaissance, and he wrote The Culture of the Renaisburner by a tripping arrangement of sance, 1860; and The History of the Renaissance, 1867. the valve, and remains in action seven His latter years were principally devoted to the elaboraseconds. The gas chamber of the buoy, tion of his writings. He died at Basel, 8th August 189/. charged to five atmospheres, is reBurdett-Coutts, Angela Georgina, plenished from a steamer fitted with a Baroness (1814 ), British philanthropist, was born Fig. 13. pump and transport receivers carrying 25th April 1814, being the youngest daughter of Sir indicating valves, the receivers being charged to ten atmo- Francis Burdett, Bart., so famous in the early part of the spheres. Practically no inconvenience has resulted from 19 th century as Liberal member for Westminster, and saline or other deposit, the glazing (glass) of the lantern being grand-daughter of Mr Thomas Coutts, the no less celebrated thoroughly cleaned when re-charging the buoy. Electric banker. Inheriting in 1837 a vast fortune from her light is exhibited from some buoys in the United States. grandfather, Lady Burdett-Coutts (who was raised to the In England an automatic electric buoy has been suggested, peerage as a baroness in 1871), has devoted her life to worked by the motion of the waves, which cause a stream works of public and private charity and beneficence. It of water to act on a turbine connected with a dynamo has been her especial aim to benefit the working classes in generating electricity, but at present gas is preferred by ways involving no loss of independence or self-respect in British authorities as an illuminant. Boat-shaped buoys the recipients of her bounty. She has sent destitute boys are occasionally used for carrying a light or bell. The Cour- into the navy and mercantile service; provided means for tenay whistling buoy (Fig. 13) is actuated by the undulating the struggling to emigrate, and insured them a fair start movement of the waves. A hollow cylinder extends from in the colonies; created or restored fisheries on the Irish the lower part of the buoy to below the movement of the coast; founded and maintained schools, industrial and waves, ensuring the water inside keeping at mean level, otherwise ; erected and administered model dwellings, and whilst the buoy follows the movements of the waves. By established markets for the poor. She has been no less a special apparatus the compressed air is forced through active in the promotion of moral reform by the foundation the whistle at the top of the buoy, and is replenished by of refuges and reformatories for the criminal and abandoned two tubes at the upper part of the buoy. It is fitted with of both sexes. She has endowed three colonial bishoprics, a rudder and secured in the usual manner. Automatic built and endowed several churches; her bounty has buoys cannot be relied on in calm days with a smooth sea. relieved the distresses of Bulgarian refugees ; her helping The nun buoy (Fig. 14) for indicating the position of an hand has been stretched out to the Dyaks of Borneo and anchor after letting go, is secured to the aborigines of South Australia) and she has been the crown of the anchor by a buoy indefatigable in lending her aid to support home and rope. It is usually made of galvanized foreign church missions, and schemes for extending British iron, and consists of two cones joined civilization in tropical countries, and for developing the together at the base and is painted red colonial estates of the British Empire. In 1881 she for the port anchor and green for the married Mr William Lehman Ashmead Bartlett, M.P. for starboard. A mooring buoy (Fig. 6) Westminster since 1885, who assumed his wifes name by for a battleship is built of steel in four royal license. watertight compartments, and has Burdon-Sanderson, Sir John Scott, sufficient buoyancy to keep. afloat Fig_ 14 Bart. (1828 ), English physiologist, was born at should a compartment be pierced; they are 13 ft. long with a diameter of 61 ft. The Jesmond, near Newcastle, on 21st December 1828, and mooring cable (bridle) passes through a watertight 16 in. received his medical education at the university of Edintrunk pipe, built vertically in the centre of the buoy, and burgh. In 1856 he became medical officer of health for is secured to a “rocking shackle” on the upper surface Paddington, and four years later physician to the Middlesex of the buoy. Large mooring buoys are usually protected and the Brompton Consumption Hospitals. When diphby horizontal wooden battens and are fitted with life theria appeared in England in 1858 he was sent to investigate the disease at the different points of outbreak, and chains. (J- w* I)-) in subsequent years he carried out a number of similar Bura.nO, a town of the province of Venice, Venetia, inquiries, e.g., on the cattle plague and on cholera in 1866. Italy, on an island in the lagoon, 7 miles N.E. from Venice. He became first principal of the Brown Institution at The men are engaged in fishing, extracting salt, and making Lambeth in 1871, and three years afterwards succeeded gondolas, whilst the women devote their time to lace- Sharpey in the Jodrell professorship of physiology at making. Population of island (1899), 4500. University College, London. When the Waynflete chair Burauen, one of the four interior towns of Leyte, of physiology was established at Oxford in 1883, he was Philippine Islands, in latitude 10° 9' N. Its most im- chosen to be its first occupant, and immediately found portant export is hemp. Woven fabrics are produced by himself the object of a furious anti-vivisectionist agitation. the women in some quantity. The language is Visayan. The proposal that the university should spend £10,000 in providing him with a suitable laboratory, lecture-rooms, Population, 21,000.