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B U R D W A N — BURGERS 465 &c.j in which to carry on his work, was strongly opposed, 30,000 men, women, and children, with an output of by some on grounds of economy, but largely because he more than three million tons. The Barrakur ironworks was an upholder of the usefulness and necessity of experi- produce pig-iron, which is reported to be as good as that ments upon animals. It was, however, carried by a small of Middlesborough. During 1897-98 the total output was majority (88 to 85), and in the same year the Royal Society 19,719 tons. The value of the iron sold was Rs. 12,34,080, awarded him a Royal medal in recognition, not only of his being nearly threefold that of two years previously. Apart researches on the electrical phenomena exhibited by plants, from Burdwan town and Raniganj, the chief places are the and on the relations of minute organisms to disease, but river-marts of Katwa and Kalna. The East Indian railway also of the services he had rendered to physiology and has. two lines running through the district, with sixteen pathology, and of his efforts to promote the study of those stations. sciences in Great Britain. But his opponents at Oxford The division of Burdwan comprises the six districts of were not silenced by this adverse vote, and in 1885, after Burdwan, Birbhum, Bankura, Midnapore, Hooghly, and an unavailing effort in the preceding year, they had a third Howrah, with a total area of 13,956 square miles, and a chance, Convocation being asked to vote £500 a year for population in 1891 of 7,688,818, being an average density three years for the purposes of the laboratory, which was of 550 persons per square mile; the land revenue and then approaching completion. This proposal was fought rates were Rs.90,30,964; the number of police was 3628, with the utmost bitterness, and long circulars were issued being one policeman to every 3-8 square miles of area and by both sides, the signatories to that of the anti- to every 2126 of population. In 1896-97 the number of vivisectionists including Freeman, Ruskin, and Bishop schools was 11,380, attended by 316,699 pupils, of whom Mackarness of Oxford. Ultimately, in one of the most 18,484 were girls. disorderly meetings of Convocation ever known, the money Burgas, capital of a department in Bulgaria, and an was granted by 412 to 244 votes, and the Oxford Medical important seaport, situated on a promontory on the Gulf School, for which Burdon-Sanderson has done so much, was saved from uselessness. In 1885 he was appointed of Burgas, 76 miles N.E. of Adrianople. For some time regius professor of medicine at Oxford, and in 1899 he it threatened to rival Varna as the chief port of Bulgaria, was created a baronet. His attainments, both in biology but notwithstanding the completion by the Societe des and medicine, have brought him many honours. He has Batignolles of a splendid harbour in 1900, with a capacious delivered the Croonian lectures of the Royal Society, has quay, affording access to vessels of deep draught, the port been Harveian orator of the Royal College of Physicians may even yet decline in importance ; the sudden change in (1878), has acted as president of the British Association its prospects being due partly to the recent cession of the (1893), and has served on three royal commissions— Yamboh-Saramberg line to the Orient company, whose aim Hospitals (1883), Tuberculosis (1890), and University for is to draw the trade to Dedeagatch and Constantinople, and partly to the opening of the Sofia-Varna line, which London (1892-94). tends to attract a portion of the import trade to Sofia. Burdwan, or Bard WAN, a town of British India, The number of vessels that entered the port in 1897 was in Bengal, which gives its name to a district and to a divi- 519 of 569,432 tons, the number in 1899 being 599 of sion. It is situated in 23° 14' K lat. and 87° 54' E. long., 356,192 tons. The value of the imports in 1899 was and has a station on the East Indian railway, 67 miles £248,600 and of the exports £200,500. The population N.W. from Calcutta. It had a population in 1891 of is about 12,000. 34,777. The town owes its importance to the residence Burgers, Thomas Francois (1834-1881), of the Maharaja of Burdwan, the premier nobleman of President of the Transvaal Republic, was born 15th April Lower Bengal, with a rent-roll of Rs.46,68,233. The 1834, and was sent to be educated at Utrecht, where he palace is built and furnished after European fashion, and took the degree of Doctor of Theology. On his return to the grounds include a fine menagerie. A college, entirely South Africa he was ordained minister of the Dutch supported by the estate, at an annual cost of Rs.8546, Reformed Church, and stationed at Hanover in Cape was attended in 1896-97 by 274 students. A good water- Colony, where he exercised his ministrations for eight supply is derived from the river Banka. There are four years. In 1862 his preaching attracted attention, and printing-presses, one of which issues a vernacular news- two years later an ecclesiastical tribunal suspended him paper. The town also contains a public library. for heretical opinions. He appealed, however, to the The district of Burdwan lies along the right bank of Colonial Government which had appointed him, and the river Bhagirathi or Hooghly. It has an area of 2697 obtained judgment in his favour, which was supported by square miles. Population (1881), 1,394,220; (1891), the Privy Council of England on counter-appeal in 1865. 1,391,834, showing a slight decrease due to the pre- On the resignation of Preforms, on 1st July 1872, he was valence of endemic fever; average density, 516 persons elected President by the Transvaal Boers, and in 1873 he per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus endeavoured to persuade Montsioa to agree to an alteration numbered 1,117,743 ; Mahommedans, 267,224; abori- in the boundary of the Barolong territory as fixed by the gines, 5459; Christians, 1408, of whom 657 were Euro- Keate award, but failed. In 1875 Burgers, leaving the peans. In 1901 the population was 1,534,113, showing Transvaal in charge of Acting-President Joubert, went to an increase of 10 per cent. The land revenue and rates Europe mainly to promote the Delagoa Bay railway in 1897-98 were Rs.32,92,843 ; the number of police scheme. After meeting with refusals in London he was 624; in 1896-97 the number of boys at school was managed to raise £90,000 in Holland, and bought a 44,549, being 43’4 per cent, of the male population of quantity of railway plant, which on its arrival at Delagoa school-going age; the registered death-rate in 1897 was Bay was mortgaged to pay freight, and this, so far as 30 per thousand. There are 11 indigo factories. The Burgers was concerned, was the end of the matter. In district suffered from drought in 1896-97. The Eden June 1876 he induced the Raad to declare war against canal, 20 miles long, has been constructed for irrigation. Secocoeni. The campaign was unsuccessful, and with its The weaving of silk is the chief native industry. As failure the republic collapsed, and the Transvaal was regards European industries, Burdwan takes the first place annexed to Great Britain, 12th April 1877. Mr Burgers in Bengal. It contains the great coal-field of Raniganj, accepted a pension from the British Government, and with 87 mines great and small, employing more than settled down to farming in Hanover. He died at RichS. II. — 59