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BURMA 471 Punjab. They are certainly of the same approximate age. The Population.—In Lower Burma in 1881 there were only three occurrence of marine fossiliferous rocks of the Carboniferous period divisions. There are now four, and the number of districts has at the two extremities of the extra-peninsular area of British also increased. The kingdom of Burma was annexed on the 1st India, and the complete absence of any marine Palaeozoic fossils January 1886, and the territory so acquired was divided into within the peninsular region, afford the most striking illustration four commissionerships or divisions. This number has been of the great divergence between the geological history of peninsular retained, but the names have been changed, and the number of India and that of the surrounding countries. The main outcrop districts has been increased. The names are given in the tables of nummulitic rocks extends from the north to the south-east of below. The figures are those of the census of 1891. This was the the Arakan and Chin hills and west of the Irrawaddy. The beds third census taken in Lower Burma, but the first ever attempted in have a general dip to the eastward. There are occasional out- the Upper Province. The census of 1891 showed the total populacrops of serpentine. The surface rocks are generally shales and tion ol Upper and Lower Burma to be 7,770,914. The population sandstone. Coal has been found, but hitherto has not paid of the Shan States was estimated at 375,961, which, however, is for its working. The Irrawaddy valley from the old frontier probably very much under the proper total. The figures for the to the neighbourhood of Ava, where the metamorphic area is whole province, however, amount under this estimate to 8,098,014 entered, consists of the same Tertiary rocks as are traversed by persons. The following statement shows how rapidly the population the river in Pegu. About fifty miles N.N.E. of Yenangyaung the of Lower Burma has increased since the first census of 1872. extinct volcano of Poppa rises to a height of 3000 feet above the Table showing Increase of Population. rolling country, composed of Pliocene sands and gravels. The peak consists of ash breccia, but lava flows, mostly trachytic, form the lower slopes and the surface round the base of the volcano. Per Per 1872. Increase. i cent. Amongst these floors are some of a beautiful porphyry with crystals cent. of pyroxene. The volcano is supposed by Mr Blanford to have been in action during the Pliocene period. There is no important 2,747,148|3,736,771 989,623 I 36-02 4,658,627 921,856 24-67 expanse of alluvial deposits in the valleys of the Burmese rivers. The beds of all immediately above the deltas are formed in places The annual rate of increase is 2'23 per cent., which corresponds by older rocks, and there is no such continuous alluvial plain as is to 24-67 per cent, for the decade. This means that if this rate of found along the courses of the Ganges and Indus. The delta of the increase be maintained the population of Lower Burma will be Irrawaddy has been formed by elevation by subterranean forces, doubled in 31 ’428 years. The area of the province, including the and not by the accumulation of fluviatile beds of recent origin. Upper Burma districts, but excluding the Shan States, is returned Some tracts of alluvium occur here and there, but the wide and at 171,630 square miles. There thus are on an average 45 ‘04 persons undulating plains in the neighbourhood of the rivers in Upper on each square mile throughout the province. In Lower Burma in Burma are composed, not of river alluvium, but of Pliocene fossil 1872 there were only 31’5 persons to the square mile, while in 1881 wood deposits, and the hills which bound the river on both the returns showed 42-8. In 1891 the density had risen to 52'96 sides are chiefly composed of sandstones and shales containing persons to the square mile. The subjoined table gives more fully fossil wood and bones. The mud volcanoes, or salsettes, of the return of density for each district in Upper and Lower Burma. Minbu appear never to be subject to the violent eruptions of It gives the administrative divisions as they have been rearranged those at Ramree, where stones have been ejected and flames are in 1899, and not as they were in 1891. Survey meanwhile has sometimes emitted. reduced the estimated total area to 164,990 square miles. Lower Burma. so Division.

Executive District. • ’2"° ^5° 518 033

Arakan

Akyab . . . , Northern Arakan. Kyaukpyu . . . 1 Sandoway . . Total Arakan .

Pegu .

5,136 5,233 4,387 3,784

416,305 14,628 163,832 78,425

4 i 18,540

673,190

Rangoon Town Hanthawaddy Pegu.... Tharrawaddy .

19 3,023 4,276 2,851

180,324 396,887 237,594 339,240

Prome . . .

2,914

368,466

Total Pegu

3 !

Area, sq. miles. Population.

1 .. !

12

3,470

Bassein ....

4,090

Henzada

. . .

2,886

Myaungmya . .

3,005

Irrawaddy

Tenasserim

Total Tenasserim

11

37,938

Rangoon .

180,324

Pegu . .*

10,762

(Prome . . Shwedaung (Paungde .

30,022 12,424 10,233

. 333,443 /Yandoon

Ma-ubin .

Bassein. 311,262 / Ngathainggyau f Zalun . . IHenzada . 438,131 -[ Lemyethna I Myanaung ^Kyangin . 217,878 Pantanaw .

13,451 1,300,714 6,172 211,784 2,666 31,439 5,089 266,620 7,062 233,539 5,308 94,921 9,789 73,748

Toungoo Salween. Thaton . Amherst Tavoy . Mergui .

Akgab

13,083 1,522,511

Thongwa .

Total Irrawaddy

Chief Town with Population.

36,086

912,051

20,235 5,327 / 30,177 5,608 / 6,006 19,762 5,614 5,489 8,116 6,030

Toungoo

19,232

Thaton. Moulmein Tavoy . Mergui .

9,683 55,785 15,099 10,137

No. of Land Revenue Rates, Villages. and 1898-99.

2,040 317 1,105 552

Rs. 17,40,409 4,73,035 1,69,962

4,014

23,83,406

1,313 782 1,458

3,82,730 31,99,729 17,61,123 13,15,648

1,848

7,55,672

5,401

74,14,902

971

30,64,920

1,439

14,98,772

1329

15,06,834

844

15,41,719

4,583

76,12,245

1,129 229 922 660 303 360

4,69,142 15,36,381 8,76,819 3,06,673 2,98,671

3,603

34,87,686