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478

B U R N A B Y —B U R N E-J O N E S

and here, by 14th November, five days after Thibaw’s answer March 1842, at Bedford, and was the son of a clergyhad been received, practically the whole expedition was assembled. man. Having been educated at Harrow and in Germany, On the same day General Prendergast received instructions to he entered the Horse Guards (Blue) in 1859. During a commence operations. There is not the slightest doubt that the Burmese king and his country were taken completely by surprise period of peace that followed, his spirit of adventure by the unexampled rapidity of the advance. There had been no found outlets in balloon-ascents and in travels through time for them to collect and organize for the stubborn resistance Spain and Russia. In the summer of 1874 he accomof which the river and its defences were undoubtedly capable. panied the Carlist forces as correspondent of the Times, They had not even been able to block the river by sinking steamers, but before the end of the war he was transferred to Africa &c., across it, for, on the very day of the receipt of orders to advance, the armed steamers, the Irrawaddy and Kathleen, engaged the to report on General (then Colonel) Gordon’s expedition to nearest Burmese batteries, and brought out from under their guns the Soudan. This took Burnaby as far as Khartum. the king’s steamer and some barges which were lying in readiness for Returning to England in March 1875, he matured his this very purpose. On the 16th the batteries themselves on both banks were taken by a land attack, the enemy being evidently plans for a journey on horseback to Khiva through Russian unprepared and making no resistance. On 17th November, how- Asia, which had just been closed to travellers by the ever, at Minhla, on the right bank of the river, the Burmans in Government. His accomplishment of this task, in the considerable force held successively a barricade, a pagoda, and the winter of 1875-76, described in his book A Ride to Khiva, palace and redoubt of Minhla. The attack was pressed home by brought him immediate fame. His next leave of absence a brigade of native infantry on shore, covered by a bombardment from the river, and the enemy were defeated with a loss of 170 was spent in another adventurous journey on horseback, killed and 276 prisoners, besides many more drowned in the through Asia Minor, from Scutari to Erzerum, with the attempt to escape by the river. The advance was continued next object of observing the Russian border, an account of day and the following days, the naval brigade and heavy artillery which he afterwards published. In the Russo-Turkish leading and silencing in succession the enemy’s river defences war of 1877, Captain (or, as he soon became, Lieutenantat Nyoungu, Pokoko, and Myingyan. On 26th November, when the flotilla was approaching the ancient capital ot Aya, envoys Colonel) Burnaby acted as travelling agent to the Stafford from King Thibaw met General Prendergast with offers of sur- House (Red Cross) Committee, but had to return to Engrender ; and on the 27th, when the ships were lying oil that city land before the campaign was over. At this point began and ready to commence hostilities, the order of the king to his his active interest in politics, and in 1880 he made a vain troops to lay down their arms was received. There were three strong forts here, full at that moment of thousands of armed Bur- attempt to win a seat at Birmingham in the Tory-Democrat mans, and though a large number of these filed past and laid interest. In 1882 he distinguished himself by crossing down their arms by the king’s command, still many more were the Channel in a balloon. Having been disappointed of allowed to disperse with their weapons ; and these, in the time active service in the Egyptian campaign of 1882, he parthat followed, broke up into “dacoit” or guerilla bands, which became the scourge of the country and prolonged the war for ticipated in the Sudan campaign of 1884 without official years. Meanwhile, however, the surrender of the king of Burma leave, and was wounded at El Teb. This did not deter was complete ; and on 28th November, in less than a fortnight him from a similar course when a fresh expedition started from the declaration of war, Mandalay had fallen, and the king in 1885. He was given a post by Lord Wolseley, and himself was a prisoner, while every strong fort and town on the river, and all the king’s ordnance (1861 pieces), and thousands ot met his death in the battle of Abu Klea (1 <th January). rifles, muskets, and arms had been taken. Much valuable and curious “loot” and property was found in the palace and city of Burne-Jones, Sir Edward Burne, Bart. Mandalay, which, when sold, realized about 9 lakhs of rupees (1833-1898), English painter and designer, was born 28th (£60,000). A grant of money was divided among the troops as August 1833 at Birmingham. His father was of Welsh ‘ ‘ prize money.” From Mandalay, General Prendergast made a bold stroke and descent, and the idealism of his nature and art has been seized Bhamo on 28th December. This was a very important attributed to this Celtic strain. An only son, he was move, as it forestalled the Chinese, who were preparing to claim the educated at King Edward’s School, Birmingham, and place. But unfortunately, although the king was dethroned and de- destined for the Church. He retained through life an ported, and the capital and the whole of the river in the hands of the British, the bands of armed soldiery, unaccustomed to conditions interest in classical studies, but it was the mythology of other than those of anarchy, rapine, and murder, took advantage of the classics which fascinated him. He went into residence the impenetrable cover of their jungles to continue a desultory armed as a scholar at Exeter College, Oxford, in January 1853. resistance. Reinforcements had to be pressed into the country, On the same day William Morris entered the same college, and it was in this phase of the campaign, lasting several years, that the most difficult and most arduous work fell to the lot of the having also the intention of taking orders. The two were troops. It was in this jungle warfare that the losses from battle, thrown together, and grew close friends. Their similar tastes sickness, and privation steadily mounted up ; and the troops, both and enthusiasms were mutually stimulated. Burne-Jones British and native, proved once again their fortitude and courage. resumed his early love of drawing and designing. W ith Various expeditions followed one another in rapid succession, penetrating to the remotest corners of the land, and bringing peace Morris he read Modern Painters and the Morte d’Arthur. and protection to the inhabitants, who,it must be mentioned, suffered He studied the Italian pictures in the University galleries, at least as much from the “dacoits” as did the troops. The final, and Diirer’s engravings; but his keenest enthusiasm was and now completely successful, pacification of the country was only kindled by the sight of two works by a living man, brought about by an extensive system of small protective posts scattered all over the country, and small lightly-equipped columns Rossetti. One of these was a woodcut in Allingham’s moving out to disperse the enemy whenever a gathering came to poems, “The Maids of Elfinmere”; the other was the watera head, or a pretended prince or king appeared. colour, “Dante drawing an Angel,” then belonging to No account of the third Burmese war would be complete without Coombe, of the Clarendon Press, and now in the a reference to the first, and perhaps for this reason most notable, Mr land advance into the enemy’s country. This was carried out in University collection. Having found his true vocation, November 1885 from Tounghoo, the British frontier post in the Burne-Jones, like his friend Morris, determined to relineast of the country, by a small column of all arms under Colonel quish his thoughts of the Church and to become an artist. W. P. Dicken, 3rd Madras Light Infantry, the first objective being Rossetti, although not yet seen by him, was his chosen Ningyan. The operations were completely successful, in spite of a <mod deal of scattered resistance, and the force afterwards moved master; and early in 1856 he had the happiness, in forward to Yamethin and Hlaindet. As inland operations de- London, of meeting him. At Easter he left college withveloped, the want of mounted troops was badly felt, and several out taking a degree. This was his own decision, not due regiments of cavalry were brought over from India, while mounted (as often stated) to Rossetti’s persuasion; but on settling infantry was raised locally. It was found that without these most in London, where Morris soon joined him at 11 Red Lion useful arms it was generally impossible to follow up and punish Square, he began to work under Rossettis fiiendly the active enemy. (e. P.) Burnaby, Frederick Gustavus (1842- instruction and encouraging guidance. As Burne-Jones once said, he “found himself at 1885), English traveller and soldier, was born on 3rd