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BURNTISLAND — BURTON 481 siege. In April 1864 Burnside returned to the east, and was u t attached once more to the army of the Potomac in a sub- 1Q® *' °n, Sir Frederick William (1816a nter an ordinate command j but, after long and bloody campaigns, o ^ Yir o Sh PBurton ^ art connoisseur, the third was son Mr Samuel of dMungret, county Limerick, he was blamed for the failure of a mine assault before born in Ireland in 1816. He was educated in Dublin Petersburg, July 1864, and relieved. Resigning from the where his artistic studies were carried on with marked army, April 1865, he was chosen governor of Rhode success under the direction of Mr Brocas, an able teacher, Island in 1866, and twice annually re-elected. In January who foretold for the lad a distinguished career. That 1875 he was chosen to the United States Senate, and Dus estimate was not exaggerated was proved by re-elected in 1880. He died at Bristol, Rhode Island, on Burtons immediate success in his profession. He was 13th September 1881. elected an associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy Burntisland, a royal, parliamentary (Kirkcaldy a the age of twenty-one and an academician two years group), and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, on the liter ; and in 1842 he began to exhibit at the Royal northern shore of the Firth of Forth, 5£ miles S.W. Academy A visit to Germany and Bavaria in 1851 of Kirkcaldy by rail. Since the opening of the Forth was the first of a long series of wanderings in various Bridge, Burntisland has ceased to be the terminus of the parts of Europe, which gave him a profound and intimate railway ferry traffic with the south, but having good wet knowledge of the works of the Old Masters, and prepared docks it has still a considerable shipping trade. Popula- him admirably for the duties that he undertook in 1874 tion of parliamentary and police burgh (1881), 4099 ; of when he was appointed director of the British National the royal burgh, 3197 • of the royal, parliamentary, and Gallery m succession to Sir W. Boxall, R.A. During the police burgh (1891), 4962; (1900), 5000. twenty years that he held this post he was responsible for Burriana, a town of Spain, province of Castellon, many important purchases, among them Leonardo da on the river Bechi, near the sea, in a broad fertile plain. Vinci’s “Virgin of the Rocks,” Raphael’s “Ansidei Population, 12,154. The river Mijares is used to irrigate Madonna,” Holbein’s “Ambassadors,” Van Dyck’s equesthe country, where wine, cereals, fruit, and especially trian portrait of Charles I, and the “Admiral Pulido oranges, are abundant. The port is annually visited by Pareja, by Velasquez; and he added largely to the noted about 300 vessel^ engaged in the coasting trade. The series of Early Italian pictures in the gallery. The trade, however, declined in 1898 and 1897, owing to numbei of acquisitions made to the collection during his the damage done to the orange crop by a new insect period of office amounts to not fewer than 500. His own pest. Burriana was the scene of hard fighting in the work, most of which was in water-colour, may be said to have had more attraction for experts than for the general earliest wars of the 19th century. public. It was always serious and deeply considered, and Burrillville, a town of Providence county, Rhode m style was akin to that of the Pre-Raphaelites. He was Island, U.S.A. It is one of the largest towns of Hew elected an associate of the Royal Society of Painters in England, having an area of 53 square miles. Its surface Water-Colours in 1855, and a full member in the following is rolling, with many small hills and ponds, and, while year. He resigned in 1870, and was re-elected as an most of its population is rural, it contains several small honorary member in 1886. A knighthood was conferred Tillages. Population (1890), 5492; (1900), 6317. on him in 1884, and the degree of LL.D. of Dublin in Burroughs, John (1837 ), American writer 1889. In his youth he had strong sympathy with the Young Ireland Party,” and was a close associate with on nature and natural history, was born in Roxbury Delaware county, New York, 3rd April 1837. In his some of its members. He died at his house in Kensing(A. L- B) earlier years he engaged in various pursuits—teaching, ton on 16th March 1900. journalism, banking, farming, and fruit-raising, and for nine years was a clerk in the Treasury department at Burton, John Hill (1809-1881), Scottish hisWashington. After publishing a monograph on the poetry torical writer and man of letters, was the son of and personality of Walt Whitman, he began in 1871, an officer in the army, and was born at Aberdeen on with Wake-Robin, that series of books on birds, flowers, 22nd August 1809. After studying at the university of and rural scenes which has made him the successor of his native city, he removed to Edinburgh to practise as an Thoreau as a popular essayist on the plants and animals advocate; but his progress was slow, and he eked out his environing human life. His later writings have shown a narrow means by miscellaneous literary work, much of which more philosophic mood and a greater disposition towards cannot now be identified. His Manual of the Law of Scotliterary or meditative allusion than their predecessors, land (1839) brought him into notice; he joined Bowring but the general theme and method have been the same. m editing the works of Jeremy Bentham, and for a short His chief books, in addition to Wake-Robin, are Birds and time was editor of the Scotsman, which he committed to Boets (1877), and Signs and Seasons (1886). Winter Sun- the cause of free trade. In 1846 he achieved high reputashine (1875), and Fresh Fields (1884) are sketches of tion by his Life of David Hume, based upon extensive and rave in England, Ireland, and France. A complete unused MS. material. In 1847 he wrote his biographies uniform edition of his works was issued in 1895 in ten of Lord Lovat and Duncan Forbes, and in 1849 prepared for Chambers’s Series manuals of political and of social volumes. economy, and of emigration. In the same year he lost his Burslem, a municipal borough (1878) and market wife, and never again mixed freely with society, though town of Staffordshire, England, 20 miles N. by W. of after some years he married again. He devoted himself btanord, by rail, on the Grand Trunk Canal. Before 1885 mainly to literature, contributing largely to the Scotsman part of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, it now forms part of that of Hanley. Modern structures and Blackwood, writing Narratives from Criminal Trials in Scotland (1852), Treatise on the Law of Bankruptcy in are two church mission rooms, two Methodist chapels, a Scotland (1853), and publishing in the latter year the first market building, a. charity hospital, a miners’ hall, and public baths. The Wedgwood Memorial Institute has volume of his History of Scotland, which was completed in 1870. Some of the more important of his contributions /i«oUeXtended and a Public Park of 22 acres opened to Blackwood were embodied in two delightful volumes, The Book Hunter aviid The Scot Abroad (1862). He (imj; 38 Tee1^011 (1881)’ 27,551 ; (1891)’ 31,999; had in 1854 been appointed secretary to the Prison Board S. H. —6r