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BUTLER- -BUXTON

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opinions. His career in Parliament was marred by his irregular habits, which resulted in pecuniary embarrassment, and between 1865 and 1870 he returned again to his work at the law courts. The result, however, of the disestablishment of the Irish Church was to drive Butt and other Irish Protestants into union with the Nationalists, who had always repudiated the English connexion; and on 19th May 1870, at a large meeting in Dublin, Butt inaugurated the Home Rule movement in a speech demanding an Irish parliament for local affairs. On this platform he was elected in 1871 for Limerick, and found himself at the head of an Irish Home Rule party of fiftyseven members. But it was an ill-assorted union, and Butler, a borough of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., capital Butt soon found that he had little or no control over his of Butler county, situated 31 miles N. of Pittsburg, at more aggressive followers. He had no liking for violent an altitude of 1008 feet. It is entered by three railways methods or for “ obstruction ” in Parliament; and his —the Pennsylvania ; the Pittsburg and Western ; and the leadership gradually became a nullity. His false position Pittsburg, Butler, and Lake Erie. It is prominent in the undoubtedly assisted in breaking down his health, and he manufacture of glass, using natural gas for fuel. Popula- died in Dublin on 5th May 1879. tion (1880), 3163 ; (1900), 10,853. Butte, the largest city of Montana, U.S.A., and Butler, Benjamin Franklin (1818-1893), capital of Silver Bow county. It is situated in 46° 00' N. American lawyer and politician, was born in Deer- lat. and 112° 32' W. long., in the valley of Deer Lodge field, N.H., on 5th November 1818, and died in river, near its head, at an altitude of 5544 feet. It is Washington, D.C., on 11th January 1893. He early entered by four railways—the Northern Pacific ; the Great attained distinction as a lawyer in criminal cases. At Northern ; the Montana Central; and the Butte, Anaconda, different times he was a member of each branch of the and Pacific. It is the centre of the greatest copper-mining Massachusetts legislature, and in 1860 he was an unsuc- region on the globe; the surrounding hills are honeycessful candidate for the governorship of the state. combed with mines, and the city contains large smelting Shortly after the beginning of the Civil War he became works. The annual output of copper from this dismajor-general, and was in command at Fort Monroe. trict is usually almost one-half that of the whole United When the return of some slaves that had come within his States. The assessed valuation of real and personal lines was demanded, he declined to comply on the ground property in 1900, on a basis of assessment of about 60 per that they were contraband of war. This was a new and cent, of full value, was $18,989,200, the tax rate $26 per important, as well as amusing, application of the term. $1000, and the net debt $585,487. Population (1880), He captured forts on the coast of North Carolina in 3363; (1890), 10,723 ; (1900), 30,470, of whom 20,260 August 1861, and, after Farragut’s successful movements were native-born and 10,210 foreign-born. at New Orleans, Butler took possession of that city on Butterflies. See Insects. 1st May 1862. In the administration of its affairs he Buturlinovka, or Petrovskoye, a village of showed much vigour and some severity. His famous order stating that women insulting Federal soldiers should Russia, government of Voronezh, district and 28 miles be treated as women of the town, was misrepresented at S.E. of Bobrov, on the great highway to Saratov. Its the South and misunderstood abroad, and Jefferson Davis inhabitants are engaged in the leather industry, have declared him an outlaw. Butler’s seizure of $800,000, twenty tanneries, and prepare a considerable amount of which had been deposited in the office of the Dutch sheep-skins and boots exported to the Don and the Black consul, led to his displacement. Afterwards he was in Sea provinces. Population, 23,400. command of the department of Virginia and North Buxton, a market town and fashionable wateringCarolina, but in 1864 he was removed by General Grant. place in the High Peak parliamentary division of DerbyHe was Representative in Congress from 1867 until 1879, shire, England, 36 miles N.W. by N. of Derby by rail, except the years 1875-77. He was one of the members at an elevation of 1000 feet. Its popularity has been appointed by the House of Representatives to conduct more than maintained, and it is calculated that the the impeachment trial of President Johnson. In 1882 average annual number of people visiting the town to the Democrats elected him as Governor of Massachusetts. take the waters is nearly 63,000. Especially has there In 1884 he was an unsuccessful candidate of the Green- been, of late years, a steady increase in the number of back and Antimonopoly parties for the Presidency. winter visitors. In 1894 the duke of Devonshire erected Butt, Isaac (1813-1879), Irish lawyer and Nation- a handsome pump-room at St Anne’s Well, and the main alist leader, was born at Stranorlar, Donegal, in 1813, his baths are replete with every modern convenience. The father being the local Episcopalian rector. Having won high old parish church has been restored, another enlarged, honours at Trinity, Dublin, he was appointed professor of and the Devonshire Hospital extended. About 3000 poor political economy in 1836. In 1838 he was called to the people are now treated annually with the waters at this bar, and not only soon obtained a good practice, but hospital, the dome over one of the buildings of which, it became known as a politician on the Protestant Conserva- may be noted, has a circumference greater than that of tive side, and an opponent of O’Connell. In 1844 he any other dome in Europe. Public gardens, 23 acres in was made a Q.C. He figured in nearly all the important area, have been provided, with a pavilion and concert hall, Irish law cases for many years, and was engaged in the a theatre, and reading- and other rooms. Electric lighting defence of Smith O’Brien in 1848, and of the Fenians has been introduced, and there is an excellent golf-course. between 1865 and 1869. In 1852 he was returned to Buxton has become an important centre for horse-breeding, Parliament by Youghal as a Liberal-Conservative, and and a large horse fair is held annually. Area of urban retained this seat till 1865; but his views gradually district (constituted 1894), 1275 acres ; population (1881), became more liberal, and he drifted away from his earlier 6021 ; (1891), 7540; (1901), 10,179. cuted at one or other of the creeks all the year round. Many of the fishermen find employment during the season on the Clyde yachts, Rothesay being one of thg chief centres of this sport. An export and import trade in agricultural produce and fish and miscellaneous goods respectively is carried on between the Bute ports of Rothesay, Millport, Brodick and Lamlash, and Greenock, Gourock, Wemyss Bay and Ardrossan on the mainland, and there is regular steamer communication between these ports all the year round, the traffic reaching enormous dimensions in summer. See J. Wilson. Account of Rothesay and Bute. Rothesay, 1848. —John E. Reid. History of the County of Bute. Glasgow, 1864. J. K. Hewison. History of Bute. 1894-95.—Bute in the Olden Time.—J. Roger. Ancient Monuments in the Church of St Mary, Rothesay. Soc. of Antiq. Edinb., 1848.— J. Thoms. Rothesay Castle. Rothesay, 1870. (w. Wa.)