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Ccesarea-Palsestina, now Kaisarieh, on the going to England—but, owing to higli export duties, only coast of Palestine. In 1884 a colony of Bosnians was 107 tons of cork-wood. 78,228 lasts of salt, each last being 2| tons, were shipped for foreign countries in 1898, settled on the site, and there has since been much and 13,201 lasts for other Spanish ports. The number of destruction of the ruins. 02Lgr|iari, a town and archiepiscopal see of Italy, British vessels that entered the port during 1898 was 291, of 180,535 tons, as against 267 vessels of 133,479 tons in capital of the province of Cagliari and of all Sardinia. 1897. 55 of the former brought 42,792 tons of British It stands at the head of a fine bay at the south end of the coal, and in all 202 entered with cargoes, while 89 were island. The university, which has mmeralogical and in ballast. 175 with cargoes and 5 in ballast cleared for zoological collections, was attended by 241 students in Great Britain and British colonies, and 60 with cargoes 1898, and had 32 professors. This town is famous for and 50 in ballast for other countries. The total number its many excellent charitable organizations. There are, of vessels of all nationalities that entered the port in 1898 further, a botanical garden, a royal school of viticulture, was 2696 of 1,631,428 tons, of which 2050 of 1,216,026 a school of the industrial arts and sciences, and a school tons were Spanish. The docks and quays, as well as of navigation. The exports consist principally of metals the through railway communication, would require to be and minerals, with timber, spirits, hides, cereals, live much improved to attract ocean-going steamers and make animals, &c., to the annual value of £533,600. The Cadiz a port of call, and a coaling station, especially with imports are of the annual value of £237,700. In addiGibraltar so near. The total value of the customs receipts tion to this there is a coasting trade of about £2,000,000 in 1898 was £54,834, a falling-off of £27,934 on 1897 annually. The port was cleared in 1897 by 1517 vessels and £26,104 on 1896. Coal was one of the principal of 458,067 tons; all the ports of Sardinia together, by imports: 157,900 tons in 1898—94,786 from England 2749 vessels of 804,400 tons in 1889. Population of and the rest from Spain itself. The wine trade of Jerez, province (1881), 420,635; (1901), 482,000; of town Puerto Santa Maria, and Puerto Real, near Cadiz, con- (1881), 38,598 ; (1901), 53,734. tribute extensively to the exports of Cadiz. Cagsau cL) a town of 20,000 inhabitants, in the Caen, chief town of Calvados, 148 miles N.W . of province of Albay, Luzon, Philippine Islands. It is l£ Paris by rail, and a fortified town of the third class. A miles from the town of Albay, which is its port, and its monument of the “Sons of Calvados^ commemorates exports are those of the latter city. The language is those who fell in the war of 1870-71. The ancient Bicol. Abbaye aux Homines is now occupied by the Lycee. A Cahors, chief town of department Lot, I ranee, natural history museum contains the collection of d’Urville, 360 miles S.S.W. of Paris, on railway from Paris to and an art museum has one of the richest collections of Toulouse. Its industries include shoe manufactures, dyepaintings in France. The number of vessels engaged in works, and large distilleries. Coal is worked in the neighthe foreign trade entered at Caen in 1899 was 644, of bourhood, and amongst minor articles of commerce are 205,749 tons. Iron ore has become by far the most nuts, oil of nuts, and prunes. It was the birthplace of Leon important export. Population (1881), 34,460; (1891), Gambetta, of whom there is a bronze statue by lalguieie 37,184; (1896), 37,457, (comm.) 39,105. in the Boulevard Gambetta. The Lycee Gambetta is Caesarea-Mazaca, now Kaisarieh, chief town installed in old monastic buildings. There is a monument of a sanjak in the Angora vilayet of Asia Minor. Mazaca, in commemoration of the war of 1870-71. The restoration the old fortified Yalentre bridge was completed m 1881. the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called of Population (1876), 11,145, comm. 12,615 ; (1886), l-,057; Eusebea, and named Ccesarea by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjish Dagh (AT. Argceus). It (1896), 10,882, comm. 12,331; (1901), 13,981. Caibarien, a sugar - shipping port on the north was taken by Tigranes, and afterwards, in a.d. 268, by Shahpur I. (Sapor). In the 4th century Basil, when coast of Santa Clara province, Central Cuba, 193 miles bishop, established an ecclesiastical centre on the plain, E. by S. of Havana. Population (1899), 7013. about one mile to the north-east, and this gradually Caird. John (1820-1898), Scottish divine and supplanted the old town. A portion of Basil’s new city philosopher, was born at Greenock, 15th December 1820. was surrounded with strong walls, and turned into a After being at school until his sixteenth year he began hie fortress by Justinian ; and within the walls, rebuilt m the his father’s office, his father being partner and manager of 13th and 16th centuries, lies the greater part of Kaisarieh, a firm of engineers. Two years later, however, he obtained altitude 3500 feet. The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, leave to continue his studies at Glasgow University. before passing to the Osmanli Turks. Its early com- Once more, after a year of academic life, he tried business mercial importance was due to its position on the ancient again ; he acquitted himself highly creditably at first but finally abandoned business in 1840, and returned to trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates, on the 1 ersian he college In 1845 he entered the ministry of the Churcii “Royal Road” from Sardis to Susa, and on tlm great Roman highway from Ephesus to the East. It is still of Scotland, holding the livings of Newton-on-Ayr, ol Lady Tester’s, Edinburgh, of Errol m Perthshire and the most important trade centre in eastern Asia Minor, of Park Church, Glasgow, until in 1862 he accepted th and is remarkable for the enterprise of its merchants and chair of Divinity at Glasgow. During these years he traders. The town is noted for its fruit, especially its won for himself a foremost place among the preachers ol vines •' and it exports tissues, carpets, hides, yellow Scotland, having for his contemporaries such men of great berries and dried fruit. Kaisarieh is the headquarters eloquence as Norman Macleod and Guthrie. His most of the American Mission in Cappadocia, which has several notable sermons were-. “ Eeligion m Common Life, ' i« churches and schools for boys and girls. It is the seat of is Religion?” “The Universal Religion. In theology a Greek bishop, an Armenian archbishop, and a Roman he was° essentially a Broad Churchman, seeking always Catholic bishop, and there is a Jesuit school. On the to show forth the permanent elements in religion, an 30th November 1895 there was a massacre of Armenians, ignoring the technicalities of doctrine. In no in which several Gregorian priests and Protestant pastors was appointed Vice-Chancellor and Principal of Glasgow lost their lives. Population, 50,000 (Moslems, 27,000; , University. He delivered the Gifford Lectures in 1 Christians, 23,000). (c- w- "'•)