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CAIRO — CAITHNESS 495 south of Cairo a short railway line runs to the town of caused his downfall, in spite of the courage displayed and Helwan, 14 miles distant, situated in the desert 3 miles the severe wound received by him in protecting the king’s from the river, and much frequented by invalids on person on that occasion. On 3rd July 1879 he returned account of its sulphur baths. With the increasing pro- to power, and in the following November formed, with sperity of the country the public buildings of Cairo are Depretis, a coalition ministry, in which he retained the being gradually improved and rebuilt. The collection of Premiership and the Foreign Office. Confidence in French Egyptian antiquities, formerly housed in a small building assurances, and belief that Great Britain would never at Bulaq, was removed in 1889 to the Khedivial palace permit the extension of French influence in North Africa, of Giza on the west bank of the Nile; a new museum has prevented him from foreseeing the French occupation of now been constructed close to the Qasr el Nil barracks, lunis (11th May 1881). In vieAv of popular indignato which the collection will be transferred. More in the tion, he resigned in order to avoid making inopportune centre of the city have been built the new Law Courts, declarations to the Chamber. Thencefonvard he practiwhile close by is a large building which, when finished, cally disappeared from political life. In 1887 he received will receive the Khedivial public library and the collec- the Knighthood of the Annunziata, the highest Italian tions of the Museum of Arab Art. On the bank of the decoration, and on 8th August 1889 died while a guest river, in the south part, the Medical School and the of King Humbert in the royal palace of Capodimonte, Government Hospital occupy the old palace of Qasr el near Naples. w. s.) Aini. A new Observatory will be built at Helwan, as the extension of the city northwards has rendered the Caithness, the most northerly county of the Scottish present site quite unsuitable. Though it is inevitable mainland, bounded W. and S. by Sutherlandshire, E. by that the Oriental character of much of the town will be the German Ocean, and N. by the Pentland Firth. replaced by modern European buildings, still much that Area and Population.—According to the last official estimate, is picturesque remains; and the careful and systematic the area (foreshore excluded) is 446,017 acres, or about 697 square renewal and restoration of the old mosques, fountains, &c., miles. The population was in 1881, 38,865 ; in 1891, 37,177, of whom 17,472 were males and 19,705 females; in 1901, 33,859. which represent the best styles of Arab art, are preserving Taking the land area only (438,878 acres or 6857 square miles), much that is of interest and beauty which would other- the number of persons to the square mile in 1891 was 54, and the Avise have fallen into decay. In 1882 the population was number of acres to the person 11 '8. In the registration county, 374,838, and in 1897 it amounted to 570,062, of w7hich the decrease of population between 1881 and 1891 was 67 per cent. Between 1881 and 1891 the excess of births over deaths was 3950, 35,385 were foreigners; the suburbs of Helwan and and the decrease of the resident population 1474. The following Mataria being included in the latter census, though not table gives particulars of births, deaths, and marriages in 188o” 1890, and 1899 : — in the former. (h. g. l.) Cairo, capital of Alexandria county, Illinois, U.S.A., Year. Deaths. Marriages. Births. Percentage Illegitimate.of situated, at an altitude of 313 feet, in the southern part of the state where the Ohio joins the Mississippi in the 1880 677 175 1056 11-5 1890 733 163 970 11-65 bottom-lands. It is protected from floods by the levees 1899 621 167 872 11-5 which surround the place. Occupying a central position, it has a large river traffic, besides which five railways The following table gives the birth-rate, death-rate, and marriagecentre in it, giving it also extensive land traffic. Popula- rate per thousand of the population for a series of years :— ° tion (1880), 9011; (1890), 10,324; (1900), 12,566. 1880. 1881-90. | 1890. 1891-98. 1899. Cairoli, Benedetto (1825-1889), Italian statesBirth-rate . 26-44 26-98 25-39 24-36 24-41 man, was born at Pavia, 28th January 1825. Froml848until Death-rate . 16-95 16-84 19-18 16-55 17-39 the completion of Italian unity in 1870, his whole activity Marriage-rate 4-38 4-56 4-26 4-48 4-67 Avas devoted to the Risorgimento, as Garibaldian officer, The number of Gaelic-speaking persons in the county in 1891 was political refugee, anti-Austrian conspirator, and deputy to 4068, of whom 76 spoke Gaelic only, and there were 18 foreigners Parliament. He commanded a volunteer company under Valuation in 1889-90, £132,795 ; 1899-1900, £114,105. Garibaldi in 1859 and 1860, being wounded slightly at Administration.—The county returns a member to parliament. Calatafimi, and severely at Palermo in the latter year. In Wick (2773) is the only royal burgh, and the parliamentary burgh Wick (7881) is one of the Northern group of burghs. Thurso 1866, with the rank of colonel, he assisted Garibaldi in of (3938) and Pulteneytown (5502) are police burghs. There are 10 Tyrol, in 1867 fought at Montana, and in 1870 con- civil parishes, of which all but one are included in the combinaducted the negotiations with Bismarck, during which the tions of Latheron and Thurso. The number of paupers and German Chancellor is alleged to have promised Italy dependants in September 1899 was 1480. Caithness unites with Orkney and Shetland to form a sheriffdom, and there is a resident possession of Rome and of her natural frontiers if the sheriff-substitute at Wick, avIio sits also at Thurso and Lybster. Democratic party could prevent an alliance betAveen Victor Education.—Twelve school boards manage 63 schools, with an Emmanuel and Napoleon. The prestige personally acquired average attendance of 5504 in 1898-99, and there are 3 voluntary by Benedetto Cairoli was augmented by that of his four schools, Avith an average attendance of 200. There are academies and Thurso, and six other schools earned grants in 1898-99 brothers, who fell during the wars of Risorgimento, and at Wick higher education. The county council spent £262 out of the by the heroic conduct of their mother. His refusal of all tor “residue” grant in 1898 in subsidizing elementary schools and compensation or distinction further endeared him to the cookery classes, and in buying apparatus for technical classes. Agriculture.—About two-fifths of the arable land are good, oneItalian people. When in 1876 the Left came into power, Cairoli, then a deputy of sixteen years’ standing, became fifth is bad, and the rest medium. The cold, wet, and windy climate has been successfully counteracted by improving landparliamentary leader of his party, and, after the fall of lords and tenants, and a considerable part of the acreage is Depretis, Nicotera, and Crispi, formed his first Cabinet in in large farms tilled in a thoroughly good style. Twenty-five March 1878 with a Francophil and Irredentist policy. per cent, of the land was under cultivation in 1898. According Mter his marriage with the Countess Elena Sizzo of to the return of 1895, the average size of the 2694 holdings 41 acres. Only 24'83 per cent. Avere under 5 acres, compared Tient, he permitted the Irredentist agitation to carry the was Avith 64’92 in the adjacent county of Sutherland; 59'28 were country to the verge of a war with Austria. General betAveen 5 and 50, and 15-89 o-er 50 acres. The number between irritation Avas caused by his policy of “ clean hands ” at 50 and 100 was 201; between 100 and 300, 159 ; between 300 and the Berlin Congress, while the attempt of Passanante to 500, 38 ; between 500 and 1000, 21 ; and there were 9 over 1000. Oats are the vastly preponderant crop; wheat-growing has died assassinate King Humbert at Naples (12th December 1878) out, and the barley acreage remains fairly constant at about 1000.