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1900), on the left bank of the Danube, opposite Viddin. It was founded in the 14th century by Genoese colonists, who employed large numbers of workmen (Calfats) in repairing ships—which industry gave its name to the place. It is now an important centre of the grain trade, 1880 105,551 35,953 16,967 26,688 25,359 584 1885 106,710 35,559 16,392 28,282 25,806 671 and is connected by railway with Craiova. 1890 109,082 36,419 16,764 30,505 25,231 161 Calais, a seaport on the Strait of Dover in the 35 1895 110,026 35,455 16,184 29,748 28,596 59 arrondissement of Boulogne, department of Pas-de-Calais, 1899 111,869 35,113 16,051 32,205 28,438 France, 184 miles from Paris by rail. The manufacturing The following table gives particulars of the live stock in the suburb of St Pierre-les-Calais has been incorporated with same years :— the municipality. Important industries, besides the longCows or Total Total established manufacture of tulle and lace, of which the Pigs. Sheep. Heifers in Horses. Cattle. Milk or Calf. value exported in 1899 amounted to £3,267,860, are the manufacture of carriages, bicycles, motor cars, and 93,969 1559 7040 19,746 1880 5177 101,378 1736 telegraph cables; brewing, silk-milling, brick-making, and 7040 20,030 1885 5021 121,127 1928 7406 20,664 1890 5431 soap - making are also carried on. In outlying districts 108,621 1806 7417 1895 5580 21,646 important industries are—the manufacture of chairs at 130,006 1495 7841 21,780 1899 5653 Audruicq ; iron - founding and quarrying at Marquise; Since the commencement of the operations of the Croiters Com- the working of phosphates near Caffiers) and sugarmission in 1886 down to the end of 1898, 1359 fair rents have been refining at Port d’Ardres, employing during the busy fixed in Caithness, rents amounting to £9032 were reduced to season about 1200 persons, with an output of sugar £6143, and of £12,600 of arrears £7051 was cancelled. In the same period, 117 applications for enlargement of holdings were (1899-1900) of 22,000 tons. The fitting of machinery dealt with, and 552 acres were added to existing holdings. Only carried on in six establishments at Calais, Marquise, and 952 acres were under wood in 1895. According to the census of Audruicq, employs about 8000 persons. There is a 1891, 4258 men and 1010 women were engaged in agriculture. Industries and Twelve thousand tons of pavement flags proposal to establish large shipbuilding yards at Calais, were quarried in 1895 and 22,089 tons, valued at £21,867, in 1899. only fishing boats having hitherto been built here. The It is fishing, however, that makes Caithness crofting_ possible. number of vessels entered and cleared respectively in 189!) Thurso, Scrabster, Lybster, and Wick are the chief fishing ports. was 2101, tonnage 812,815, and 2106, tonnage 786,735. The following tables show particulars of the combined districts of Of this total, British vessels numbered 1432 entered, Lybster and Wick, which may be taken as representing the tonnage 392,786, and cleared 1443, tonnage 395,216. county :— Resident rp0^aj raiue The produce of the fisheries, in which 88 boats were Boats. Value of Fishermen employed, was valued at £56,000. The total number of ofallFish. Year. Gear. and Boys. Tons. No. passengers carried between Dover and Calais in 1899 was 3807 £109,988 263,420. Port accommodation has been greatly improved. 1890 920 10,242 £55,304 £53,174 2878 £124,935 The entrance channel has a width between jetties of 430 6,594 £28,200 £47,064 1898 659 2353 £117,539 feet, and a depth of 34 feet and 13 feet at high and low 6,540 £35,538 £41,778 1899 639 The value of the herring catch alone, in 1898, was £95,216. spring tides respectively. There are four principal basins, There were 6266 persons in 1899 employed in the two districts in of which the East Tidal Basin (that used by the mail connexion with the various branches of the sea fisheries. The packets) has an area of 16 acres. The canal of Calais, 184 salmon fisheries along the coast and at the mouths of rivers are miles long, connects the port with the Aa and the navigable of considerable value. A light railway (13 miles) from Wick to waterways of the department. Inland canal traffic in Lybster has been sanctioned. See S. Laing. Prehistoric Remains of Caithness. Loud, and Edin., 1899 amounted to 464,066 tons. Total value of imports ] 366.—James T. Calder. History of Caithness edition). 1899, £3,244,000; of exports, £6,732,000. There are a Wick.—John Horne. In and About Wick. Wick.—Thomas chamber of commerce, three hospitals, and two libraries. Sinclair. Caithness Events. Wick, 1899.—History of the Population (1881), 12,446; St Pierre-les-Calais, 30,155; Clan Gunn. Wick, 1890.—J. Henderson. Caithness Family (1891, including St Pierre - les - Calais), 51,056 ; (1896), History. Edinburgh, 1884.—Harvie-Brown. Fauna of Caithness. Edinburgh, 1887.—Principal Miller. Our Scandinavian 50,818 ; (1901), 59,893. Forefathers. Thurso, 1872.—Smiles. Robert Dick, Botanist and, a city of Washington county, Maine, U.S.A, Geologist. London, 1878.—H. Morrison. Guide to Sutherland and Caithness. Wick, 1883.—A. Auld. Ministers and Men in the at the head of navigation on St Croix river, a few miles Far North. Edinburgh, 1891. (w. Wa.) above its mouth, and on the St Croix and Penobscot CajcLm area., an interior department of northern Railway. It has many lumber-mills and shipyards, and Peru, with an area of 12,538 square miles, and a population considerable commerce. Population (1880), 6173; (1890), (1896) of 442,412. It is divided into 7 provinces—Jaen, 7290; (1900), 7655. Chota, Hualgayoc, Colendin, Cajamarca, Contumara, and, chief town of the district of the same Cajabamba, the principal towns being Cajamarca and name, Rumania, 223 miles from Bucarest, on the left Cajamarquilla, with populations, respectively, of 12,000 bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube. It was and 8000. formerly called Stirbey in honour of the prince of that Calabar. See Nigeria. name. It has a considerable export of wheat, linseed, Calabria, a territorial division of S. Italy, prac- hemp, and timber. Population (1895), 11,000; (1900), tically coincident with the “toe” of the “boot,” and 11,024. embracing the provinces of Catanzaro, Cosenza, and Calatafimi, a town of the province of Trapani, Ptetrgio, with an area of 5819 sq. miles, and a popula- Sicily, Italy, 21 miles E. by S. from Trapani. A monument tiofof 1,257,883 (1881), and of 1,375,760 (1901). was erected in 1882 on the battlefield where Gariba. i Except the three provincial capitals, Keggio, Catanzaro, defeated the Neapolitan forces in 1860. It has &, trade in and Cosenza, the towns are mostly small. On the coast wine, olive oil, and sumach. Two and a half miles to the stand Cotrone, Gerace, Scilla, Palmi, Pizzo, Paola, and north-west are the ruins of the ancient city of Segesta. some others. Inland are Castrovillari, Corigliano, Iiossano, Population, about 10,500. Nicastro, Monteleone, Cittanova, Acri, and San Giovanni. Calbayog, a town of 30,000 inhabitants, near the CcUlcTfcVt, a town in Rumania (population, <113 in

The following table gives the principal acreages at intervals of five years from 1880 :— Green under Corn Clover. Permanent Year. Area Pasture. Fallow, Crops. Crops. Crops.