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CALDECOTT — CALIBRATION 498 outstanding liabilities at the close of the year were Rs.2,67,72,379, with a genial, humorous faculty, and he succeeded also, though in less degree, as a painter and sculptor. His the rates of interest ranging from 5 to 3^ per cent. The Calcutta University was constituted in 1857, as an health gave way in 1876, and after prolonged suffering, examining body, on the model of the University of London. he died in Florida on 12th February 1886. His chief During the five years ending 1897, the total number of book illustrations are as follows: Old Christmas (1876) persons who matriculated was 12,602, while 1830 gradu- and Bracebridge Hall (18/7), both by Washington living , ated B.A., and 329 M.A., 627 passed examinations in law, North Italian Folk (1877), by Mrs Comyns Carr; The 925 in medicine, and 92 in engineering. The chief educa- Harz Mountains (1883); Breton Folk (1879), by Henry tional institutions are the Government Presidency College Blackburn; picture-books {John Gilpin, The House that (with 497 students in 1897), three aided missionary col- Jack Built, and other children’s favourites) from 1878 leges (with a total of 1315 students), and four unaided onwards; Some jEsophs Fables with Modern Instances, &c. native colleges (with a total of 1474 students); the San- (1883). He held a roving commission for the Graphic, was an occasional contributor to Punch. He was a skrit College and the Mahommedan Madrasah, the Govern- and member of the Royal Institute of lamters in "Vateiment medical college (with 468 students), the Government colours. engineering college at Sibpur, on the opposite bank of the Henry Blackburn : Randolph Caldecott, Personal Memoir Hooghly (with 310 students), the Government school of of See Us Early Life. London, 1886. (a. L. B.) art (with 261 students), 49 high schools for boys, which Qalgfeiry, a port of entry and the principal town passed 465 candidates for the matriculation ; the Bethune College, and 4 high schools for girls. In 1896-97 the of Alberta, Canada, situated 840 miles by rail W. of total number of pupils under instruction was 47,295, Winnipeg, at the junction of the main line and Edmonton the proportion to population of school-going age being 81 and Macleod branches of the Candian Pacific railway, in 51° 02' K lat. and 114° 04' W. long., at an altitude of per cent, for boys and 21 per cent, for girls. Calcutta has been comparatively fortunate in escaping 3421 feet above the sea. It is the centre of the ranching the plague. The disease manifested itself in a sporadic country and the main distributing point for the district. form in April 1898, but disappeared by September of that The population in 1901 was 4865. year. Many of the Marwari traders fled the city, and Cali, a town in the department of Cauca, Colombia, some trouble was experienced in shortness of labour in South America, situated on the Cali. The river is spanned the factories and at the docks. The plague returned in by a handsome bridge, and the town has 7 churches, several 1899, and caused a heavy mortality during the early convents, and a number of good public buildings. Its months of the following year; but the population was population is 16,000. not demoralised, nor was trade interfered with. A yet Calibration.—The term Calibration primarily sigmore serious outbreak occurred in the early months of nifies the determination of the “calibre” or bore of a gun. 1901. The total death-rate in 1900 was 43-54 per thousand, the number of deaths from plague being 8354, The word calibre was introduced through the P rench f i om the Italian calibro, together with other terms of gunnery compared with 2332 in the preceding year. Though Calcutta has been called “ the city of palaces,” and warfare, about the 16th century. The origin of the its modern public buildings cannot compare with those of Italian equivalent appears to be uncertain. It will readily Bombay. Its chief glory is the Maidan, or Park, which be understood that the calibre of a gun requires accuis large enough to embrace the area of Fort William and rate adjustment to the standard size, and further, that the a racecourse. Many monuments find a place on the bore must be straight and of uniform diameter throughMaidan, amongst the latest additions being two equestrian out. The term was subsequently applied to the accurate statues of Lord Roberts and Lord Lansdowne, which face measurement and testing of the bore of any kind of tube, one another on each side of the Red Road, where the especially those of thermometers. In modern scientific rank and fashion of Calcutta take their evening drive. language, by a natural process of transition, it has come to In the north-eastern corner of the Maidan it is proposed denote the accurate comparison of any measuring instruto erect the Indian memorial to Queen Victoria, con- ment with a standard, and more particularly the determinasisting of a marble hall, with a statue and historical tion of the errors of its scale. It is seldom possible in the relics. The Government has acquired Metcalfe Hall, in process of manufacture to make an instrument so perfect order to convert it into a public library and reading-room that no error can be discovered by the most delicate tests, worthy of the capital of India; and also the country- and it would rarely be worth while to attempt to do so house of Warren Hastings at Alipur, for the entertain- even if it were possible. The cost of manufacture would in ment of Indian princes. Lord Curzon has restored, at many cases be greatly increased without adding mateiiall) his own cost, the monument which formerly com- to the utility of the apparatus. The scientific method, in memorated the massacre of the Black Hole. A wide all cases which admit of the subsequent determination and street, called Harrison Road in memory of a former correction of errors, is to economize time and labour in chairman of the municipality, has been run through the production by taking pains in the subsequent verification centre of the city, in continuation of the line of the or calibration. This process of calibration is particular ) Hooghly bridge; but much yet remains to be done to important in laboratory research, where the observer has open up the native quarters, which are densely built over, frequently to make his own apparatus, and cannot affor the time or outlay required to make special tools for fine regardless of sanitary requirements. (j. s. Co.) work, but is already provided with apparatus and methods Caldecott, Randolph (1846-1886), English of accurate testing. For non-scientific purposes it is artist and illustrator, was born at Chester on 22nd March generally possible to construct instruments to measure with 1846. From 1861 to 1872 he was a bank clerk, first at sufficient precision without further correction. The present Whitchurch in Shropshire, afterwards at Manchester; but article will therefore be restricted to the scientific use and devoted all his spare time to the cultivation of a remark- application of methods of accurate testing. General Methods and Principles. — The process ol able artistic faculty. In 1872 he migrated to London, became a student at the Slade School, and finally adopted calibration of any measuring instrument is frequently the artist’s profession. He gained immediately a wide divisible into two parts, which differ greatly in importance reputation as a prolific and original illustrator, gifted in different cases, and of which one or the other may often