Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/56

This page needs to be proofread.

LOWER — AUSTRIA, UPPER situation between 1867 and 1870. Lkger, llistoire, de VAutrichc- and cxliv., 1897, and articles in the Annales de VEcole libre des Hongrie, Paris, 1895, a short sketch of the whole of Austrian Sciences Rolitigues for 1889 and 1891 by Kramar, and for 1894 history. Ch^lard, L'Autriche Contemporaine, Paris, 1894. Beer, by L. Pinkas, explaining the position of the young Czechs, also IJer Staatshaushalt Oesterreiche-Ungarns seit 186S, Prague, 1881. the volumes for 1897 and 1898 ; also an article in the Edinburgh Bazant, Die Handelspolitik Oesterreich Ungarns, 1875-92, Leipzig, Review, July 1898. See also the biographical articles elsewhere in 1892. Also, articles by Lanin, in the Contemporary Review, vol. this work on Emperor Franz-Josef, Andrassy, Beust, Taaffe, (j. w. He.) Ixiii. 1893 ; Benoist, in the Revue des deux Mondes, vols. cxliii. Thun, &c. 28


including garrison of 31,363 men, 2,661,779, equivalent to 347*7 Austria, Lower (German, Niederosterreich or inhabitants per square mile. Thus, including Vienna, _ Lower Oesterreich writer der Enns, i.e., Austria below the river Austria is the most populous Austrian province. Deducting the Enns), an archduchy and crown land in the Cisleithan capital, however, with its population of 1,341,897, there are only half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. It is bounded 174 inhabitants per square mile. Proportion of females to males, 1036 to 1000. Reckoning according to the language in common on the N. by Bohemia and Moravia, on the S. by Styria, use, 96*1 per cent, of the population is German, and 3*9 Slav. on the E. by Hungary, and on the W. by Upper Austria. The latter, mostly Czechs, are settled in Vienna and on the The chief town is Vienna, the capital of Austria, or the Bohemian and Moravian border, while there are a number of Cisleithan half of the dual monarchy. The original arch- Croatians in the Marchfeld. Nearly 93 per cent, are Boman the rest consisting of 128,784 Jews, 50,591 Protestants, duchy, which included the adjoining Upper Austria, is the Catholic, 1356 Old Catholics, 2654 members of the Greek Church, and 2258 birthplace and cradle of the Austrian empire, and the persons of no religion. Population in 1900, 3,086,382. In 1896 oldest possession of the House of Hapsburg in its present the marriage - rate was 8*43; the birth-rate, 33*83, or excluding still-births, 3273; and the death-rate, 22*83 per thousand. Of dominions. (For historical sketch see Ency. Brit. iii. the births 26*23 per cent, were illegitimate, an advancing ratio. 123.) Lower Austria has an area of 7654 scpiare miles. The marriage-rate is rising, the birth- and death-rates are declining. It is divided into two parts by the Danube, which enters Lower Austria sends 46 members to the Reichsrath, all of German at its most westerly point and leaves at its eastern ex- nationality. With the exception of Bohemia, Lower Austria is the most tremity, near Pressburg. North of this line is the low hilly country of the northern Alpine foreland, lying at the advanced province of the empire in the matter of elementary eduBoth had the same proportion of illiterates in 1880 (8 *5 per foot of, and forming a continuation of, the system of the cation. cent.), but in 1890 the improvement of Lower Austria (6*2 per Bohemian and Moravian plateau. This constitutes towards cent.) was slightly behind that of Bohemia (5*8 per cent.). In the the west the “ Waldviertcl,” of which the highest point is matter of higher education a comparison between the two would the Paulstein (3478 feet). Farther east there is a gradual be unfair, in view of the special advantages enjoyed by the capital. In addition to the Vienna University, Polytechnic, School of Agridecline in the altitude and frequency of the hills, which culture, and academies of commerce and of art, there are 19 gymgive place to larger valleys and comparatively fertile nasia, 23 real gymnasia, 555 technical and special schools (of which plains. In the main the southern division of the province a fifth arc devoted to music and singing), and 1680 intermediate and is mountainous and hilly. Part of it is occupied by the elementary schools. Of the 1156 periodicals and newspapers pubin 1898, 1102 were in German, 14 in French, 8 in Czech, northern or Austrian limestone Alps, of which the Schnee- lished 12 in other Slav languages, the rest being Italian, Hungarian, berg (6808 feet) is the highest summit. With one ex- Hebraic, Spanish, and polyglott. ception all the rivers are tributaries of the Danube. The See Topographic von Niederosterreich, a publication begun in 18/1 most important are the Enns and the March. The lakes by the “Verein fiir Landeskunde” in Vienna.—M. A. Becker. are comparatively few and of small extent. Of its mineral Niederbsterreichische Landschaften. Vienna, 18i9.—Umlauft. Erzherzogthum Oesterreich. Vienna, 1893 ; and Statistischer springs, the best known are those of Baden bei Wien and Das Bericht iiber die Volkswirthschaftlichen Zustdnde des ErzherzogDeutsch Altenburg (sulphur), the iron springs of Pyra- thums Oesterreich fiir das Jahr 1890. Published by the Vienna warth, and the thermal baths of Vbslau. Lower Austria Chamber of Commerce in 1894. (jE. o’n.) is remarkable among the provinces of the empire for the Austria, Upper (German, Oberosterreich or variety of its flora. In general the climate, which varies with the configuration of the surface, is moderate and Oesterreich ob der Enns, “ Austria above the river Enns”), archduchy and crown-land in the Cisleithan half of the healthy, although subject to rapid changes of temperature. an Austria-Hungarian monarchy. It is bounded on the N. It is mildest in the northern part and generally in the valleys. The soil is of moderate fertility, and only 3| per by Bohemia, on the S. by Salzburg and Styria, on the cent, is unproductive. Woods occupy 34*24 per cent, of W. by Bavaria, and on the E. by the archduchy of Lower the total area, 43*41 per cent, is arable, 13*15 percent, Austria, from which it is separated by the river Enns. consists of gardens and meadows, 2 per cent, of vineyards, It has an area of 4627 square miles, of which 262 Like Lower and 3*19 per cent, of pastures. Agriculture and forestry are occupied by the Salzkammergut. Austria, it is divided into two unequal parts by the afford sustenance to about a quarter of the population. Cereals and vegetables of all kinds are cultivated. Some Danube, which flows through it from west to east, drainfair wine is grown on the slopes of the Wiener Wald and ing the whole country, with the exception of a. small portion adjoining Bohemia. Its principal tributaries are elsewhere, averaging 874,000 hectolitres per annum. the Inn, Salzach, Traun, Enns, Steyr, and the Great and In 1890 there were 120,755 horses, 554,154 horned cattle, Little Miihl rivers. The smaller northern part of the 115,052 sheep, 81,772 goats, and 412,703 pigs. Large quantities of poultry are also bred, and game and fish are plentiful. While province is a prolongation of the southern angle of the mining is of comparatively slight significance (total value of pro- Bohemian forest. The Danube is approached from the duct in 1897, £26,945), Lower Austria (including Vienna) is one of south by the verge of the Alpine region (the Salzthe most important industrial centres of the empire, surpassing in kammergut and the Upper Austrian Alps). Towards the this respect all other provinces, excepting Bohemia and Moravia. river there is a gradual decline in the altitude of the It has 12 per cent, of the total number of factories, 13 per cent, of the motive power, and 16 per cent, of all the factory hands summits. Of the numerous and beautiful Alpine lakes, employed in Austria. Of the total of 69,636 industrial firms the most important are the Traunsee, and those of registered in 1890, 1367 were factories employing 139,000 hands. Hallstatt, After, Wolfgang, and Mond. There are about 'With the exception of its connexion with the sea at Trieste, it is thirty mineral springs, the best known being the salt baths fairly well provided for in the matter of communications. In 1897 it had 1790 kilometres of railway (10*28 per cent, of the total length of Ischl and the iodine waters at Hall. The climate, in Austria), 12,413 kms. of roads, and 319 kms. of navigable water- which varies according to the altitude, is on the whole way. There were 698 post and 463 telegraph offices, with 3135 moderate, although slightly colder than that of Lower knis. of line and 14,601 of wire. Population in 1869, 1,990,708 ; in 1880, 2,330,621; and m 1890, Austria, precluding the culture of the vine. In the north