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511 CALTAGIRONE — OALYERLEY radiate badly even at high temperatures, the energy of vibration province of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, at the is probably very small, except under the special conditions which junction of the Quingua river with the Rio Grande de la produce luminosity in flames and electric discharges. For such gases, assuming a constant ratio of rotation to translation, the Pampanga. The surrounding country is a fertile plain, specific heat at low pressures would be very nearly constant. producing large quantities of rice, as well as sugar, indigo, For more complex molecules the radiative and absorptive powers and a variety of fruits. The Manila - Dagupan railway are known to be much greater. The energy of vibration may be passes through, and the bridge across the Rio Grande is appreciable at ordinary temperatures, and would probably increase more rapidly than that of translation with rise of temperature, the longest in the Philippines. The town was fired and especially near a point of dissociation. This would account for completely burned by insurgent troops in 1899. The an increase of S, and a diminution of the ratio S/s, with rise of language is Tagalog. temperature which apparently occurs in many vapours. The experimental evidence, however, is somewhat conflicting, and Calvados, a department of the N. of France, further investigations are very desirable on the variation of bordering on the English Channel, watered by the Orne specific heat with temperature. Given the specific heat as a and Vire. function of the temperature, its variation with pressure may Area, 2198 square miles, distributed among 38 cantons and 763 be determined from the characteristic equation of the gas, as illustrated for a simple case in the article Thermodynamics, communes. The population decreased to 437,267 in 1886 and § 15. The direct methods of measuring the ratio S/s, by 410,178 in 1901, a reduction due to the fact that the number of the velocity of sound and by adiabatic expansion, are sufficiently births is in steady decline and much surpassed by the number of deaths. In 1899 the deaths numbered 9966 against 8520 births, described in many text-books. § 19. Atomic and Molecular Heats.—The ideal atomic heat is the of which 968 were illegitimate ; marriages numbered 3009. Caen, thermal capacity of a gramme-atom in the ideal state of mon- the capital, had in 1896, 45,000 inhabitants. In 1896 there were atomic gas at constant volume. This would be nearly three calories. 1055 primary schools with 55,000 pupils, and the illiterate formed For a diatomic gas, the molecular heat would be nearly five 2 per cent, of the population. Calvados is chiefly noted for its calories, or the atomic heat of a gas in the diatomic state would rearing of live stock, an industry favoured by the excellence of its be 2'5. Estimated at constant pressure the atomic heat would pastures. Out of 1,460,498 acres forming in 1896 the total area be 3'5. Some authors adopt 2‘5 and some 3‘5 for the ideal cultivated, 617,786 acres were laid out in grass and 590,600 acres atomic heat. The atomic heat of a metal in the solid state is in were plough-land. In 1899 the wheat crop yielded the value of most cases larger than six calories at ordinary temperatures. £1,015,000. The total production of the green crop (trefoil, lucerne, Considering the wide variations in the physical condition and and sainfoin) and natural pastures and grass lands amounted to melting-points, the close agreement of the atomic heats at any 11,510,000 cwts., of the value of £1,498,000. In the way of grass one temperature is very remarkable. The specific heats as a lands Calvados ranked third among the departments of France. rule increase with rise of temperature, in some cases, e.g., iron Colza, which was produced to the amount of fully a fourth of the and nickel, very rapidly. According to Tilden {Phil. Trans., total produce of France, returned a value of £230,000. Among 1900), the atomic heats of pure nickel and cobalt, as determined the fruits cultivated, apples for cider gave a revenue estimated at from experiments at the boiling-points of 02, and C02, diminish £444,000. The live stock in 1899 included 65,000 horses, 236,614 so rapidly at temperatures below 0°C. as to suggest that they cattle, and 68,750 pigs, and the value of milk products was would reach the value 2‘42 at the absolute zero. This is the £1,839,140. The horses of Calvados are much prized. Agriculture value of the minimum of atomic heat calculated by Perry from constitutes the principal wealth of this department, which supplies diatomic hydrogen, but the observations themselves might be large quantities of butter (Isigny) and of cheese. It has, however, equally well represented by taking the imaginary limit 3, also a few coal-mines and seams of iron, the latter supplying 13,000 since the quantity actually observed is the mean specific heat metric tons in 1898. The department produces plenty of stone. between 0° and — 182'5°C. Subsequent experiments on other The textile industry has developed around Caen and Falaise. metals at low temperatures did not indicate a similar diminution Calverley, Charles Stuart (1831 1884), of specific heat, so that it may be doubted whether the atomic heats really approach the ideal value at the absolute zero. No one of the brightest of English wits, and the literary doubt there must be approximate relations between the atomic father of what may be called the university school of and molecular heats of similar elements and compounds, but con- humour, was born at Martley in Worcestershire, 22nd sidering the great variations of specific heat with temperature and physical state, in alloys, mixtures, or solutions, and in December 1831. His father, the Rev. Henry Blayds, allotropic or other modifications, it would be idle to expect that resumed in 1852 the old family name of Calverley, which the specific heat of a compound could be deduced by any simple his grandfather had exchanged for Blayds in 1807. It additive process from that of its constituents. was as Charles Stuart Blayds that most of the son’s Authorities.—Joule’s Scientific Papers. London, 1890. Ames university distinctions were attained. He went up to and Griffiths, Reports to the International Congress (Paris, 1900), “On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat,” and “On the Specific Balliol from Harrow in 1850, and was soon known in Heat of Water.” Griffiths, Thermal Measurement of Energy. Oxford as the most daring and most high - spirited Cambridge, 1901. Callendar and Barnes, Phil. Trans. A, 1901, undergraduate of his time. He was a universal favourite, “ On the Variation of the Specific Heat of Water.” For combustion methods, see article Thermochemistry, and treatises by Thomsen, a delightful companion, a brilliant scholar, and the playful enemy of all “dons.” In 1851 he won the Pattison-Muir, and Berthelot. (h. l. c.) Chancellor’s prize for Latin verse, and it is said that the Caltagirone, a town and bishop’s see of the entire exercise was written in an afternoon, when his province of Catania, Sicily, Italy, 57 miles S.W. from friends had locked him into his rooms, declining to let Catania. Besides the cathedral, it has a technical school, him out till he had finished what they were confident school of agriculture, and several fine mansions. Popula- would prove the prize poem. A year later he took his tion, about 33,000. name off the books, to avoid the consequences of a college Caltan issetta, Italian town and episcopal see escapade, and migrated to Christ’s College, Cambridge. and capital of the province of Caltanissetta, Sicily, 43 Here he was again successful in Latin verse, and remains miles by rail 17. E. from Girgenti. It has a diocesan the unique example of an undergraduate who has won the seminary, a royal school of mines, and a technical school. Chancellor’s prize at both universities. In 1856 he took Population of town (1881), 30,480; (1901), 44,600; of second place in the first class in the Classical Tripos. He was elected fellow of Christ’s (1858), published Verses province (1881), 266,379; (1901), 330,972. Caluire et Cuire, a town of France, department and Translations in 1862, married a cousin, and was of Rh6ne, in the arrondissement of Lyons, 7^ miles 17. by called to the bar in 1865. Owing to an accident while E. of that city, on railway from Lyons to Trevaux. It has skating he was prevented from following up a professional manufactures of coarse earthenware and hardware; copper- career, and during the last years of his life he was an and bronze-founding, and essence distilleries. Population invalid. His Translations into English and Latin (1881), 6828; (1896), 8070, (comm.) 9035; (1901), 10,926. appeared in 1866 ; his Theocritus translated into English Verse in 1869; Fly Leaves in 1872; and Literary Remains Calumpit, a town of 15,000 inhabitants in the in 1885. He died on the 17th February 1884. Calverley