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CALVO — CAMBODIA was one of the most brilliant men of his day; and, then seceded from the Liberals, and during the last years had he enjoyed health, might have achieved distinction of his life he affected to vote with the Conservatives, who in any career he chose. Constitutionally indolent, he was made him governor of the Bank of Spain. He died in (a. e. h.) endowed with singular gifts in every department of cul- Madrid on 23rd January 1896. ture ; he was a scholar, a musician, an athlete, and a Camajore, a town of the province of Lucca, brilliant talker. What is left us marks only a small Tuscany, Italy, at the foot of the Apuan Alps, 12 miles portion of his talent, but his sparkling, dancing verses, N.W. from Lucca. It is still surrounded by walls, and has which have had many clever imitators, are still without a a 13th-century church and an old triumphal arch. Popurival in their own line. His humour was illumined by lation, about 9000. good nature; his satire was keen but kind; his laughter Cambay (Khambhat), a native state of India, was of that human sort which is often on the verge of within the Gujarat division of Bombay. It has an area tears. Imbued with the classical spirit, he introduced of 350 square miles. Population (1891), 89,722 ; (1901), into the making of light verse the polish and elegance of 75,122, showing a decrease of 16 per cent, due to the the great masters, and even in its most whimsical mood famine of 1899-1900. The estimated gross revenue was his verse is raised to the level of poetry by the saving ex- Rs.6,18,139; the tribute, Rs.21,924; the number of cellence of style. (a. wa.) police was 170; the number of schools in 1897-98 was Calvo, CarlOS (1824-1893), Argentine publicist 36, with 2490 pupils, being 3'43 per cent, of the popuand historian, was born at Buenos Ayres on 26th Feb- lation, compared with 2'4 for Bombay generally. The town of Cambay had a population in 1881 of ruary 1824, and devoted himself to the study of the law. In 1860 he was sent by the Paraguayan Government on 36,007, and in 1891 of 31,390; the municipal income in a special mission to London and Paris. Remaining in 1897-98 was Rs. 10,229, together with Rs.5,596 contributed France, he published in 1863 his Derecho internacional by the state. It is proposed to connect the town by railteorico y practice* de Europa y America^ in two volumes, way with the terminus of the Gaekwar’s railway at Petlad, and at the same time brought out a French version. The 19 miles distant, at a cost to the state of Rs. 10,00,000. book immediately took rank as one of the highest modern There is a high school and a state printing-press, which authorities on the subject, and by 1887 the first French issues a monthly gazette. edition had become enlarged to six volumes. Senor Cambodia, called by the inhabitants Srockhmer Calvo’s next publications were of a semi-historical character. (Khmer province), lies between 10° 30' and 13° 46' N. Between 1862 and 1869 he published in Spanish and lat., and 102° 50' and 106° 50' E. long. It is bounded on French his great collection in fifteen volumes of the the W. and N. by Siam and the Laos States, on the E. treaties and other diplomatic acts of the South American and S. by Cochin-China, and on the S.W. by the Gulf of republics, and between 1864 and 1875 his Annales Siam. By the treaty of 3rd October 1893, between France historiques de la revolution de VAmerique latine, in five and Siam, the latter bound herself not to maintain armed volumes. In 1884 he was one of the founders at the forces upon the great lake or in the adjoining provinces of Ghent Congress of the Institut de droit international. In Battambang and Siemrap. The whole of Cambodia lies the following year he was Argentine minister at Berlin, in the lower Mekong valley, the delta of which commences and published his Dictionnaire du droit international at Pnom-penh. The characteristic feature of Cambodian publie et prive in that city. Calvo died on 4th May geography is the presence of an immense lake, Tonle-Sap, 1893. in a vast depression more than 68 miles long and 15 miles Camacho, Juan Francisco (1824-1896), wide. During the annual overflow of the Mekong (when Spanish statesman and financier, was born in Cadiz in its waters rise to a height of 40-45 feet and flow violently 1824. The first part of his life was devoted to mercantile towards the lake along a channel 62 miles long and 1640and financial pursuits at Cadiz, and then in Madrid, where 4920 feet wide) this lake covers an area of about 770 he managed the affairs of and liquidated a mercantile and square miles, but during the dry season the current industrial society to the satisfaction and profit of the share- reverses and the depression empties, so that the lake holders. In 1837 he became a captain in the national shrinks to an area of 100 square miles and its depth falls militia, in 1852 Conservative deputy in the Cortes for from 45-48 feet to 1^ and 5 feet in its shallowest parts. Alcoy, in 1853 secretary of congress, and was afterwards Tonle-Sap represents, in all probability, the chief wealth elected ten times deputy, twice senator, and life senator in of Cambodia. It supports a fishing population of over 1877. Camacho took a prominent part in all financial 30,000, and provides a variable but always considerdebates and committees, was offered a seat in the Mon able quantity of dried fish and nuoc-mam (sauce comcabinet of 1864, and was appointed under-secretary of state posed of fermented fish) for exportation. The climate is finances in 1866 under Canovas and O’Donnell. After hot and damp. Cotton and cotton-wool reach perfection. the revolution of 1868 he declined the post of minister of Cotton in the pod finds its chief market at Kobe (Japan) finance offered by Marshal Serrano, but served in that at an average rate of 20 piastres the picul of 150 lb. capacity in 1872 and 1874 in Sagasta’s cabinets. When The area of Cambodia is about 38,600 square miles. Its the restoration took place, Camacho sat in the Cortes population numbers about 1,500,000, of whom 208 are among the dynastic Liberals with Sagasta as leader, and French (exclusive of the land and sea forces, which, howbecame finance minister in 1881 at a critical moment when ever, are small, the defence of Cambodia being assured Spain had to convert, reduce, and consolidate her treasury by Indo-China), 200,000 Annamese, and 1,300,000 Camand other debts with a view to resuming payment of bodians of Khmer origin. Cambodia became a French coupons. Camacho drew up an excellent budget and protectorate by the treaty with France of 11th August collected taxation with a decidedly unpopular vigour. _ A 1863, and the convention of 17th June 1884. It is an few years later Sagasta again made him finance minister absolute monarchy, and its king (by divine right) bears a under the regency of Queen Christina, but had to sacrifice very long series of laudatory titles. As in all countries him when public opinion very clearly pronounced against the inhabitants of which have a Khmer origin, there are his too radical financial reforms and his severity in collec- in Cambodia two kings, the second being a general, the tion of taxes. He was for the same reasons unsuccessful younger brother of the first king and his heir-presumpas a governor of the Tobacco Monopoly Company. He tive. King Norodom was born in 1834, crowned in