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CAMBRIDGESHIRE 515 duke of Cambridge, whose views were shared by the and its president in 1870, and personal aide-de-camp to majority of officers. The reforms of 1870-71 having Queen Victoria in 1882. The chief honours conferred upon largely failed to produce the results anticipated by their him were: G.C.H., 1825; K.G., 1835; G.C.M.G., 1845; promoters, further changes were inaugurated in 1880, G.C.B., 1855; K.P., 1861; K.T., 1881. and again II. It. 11. found much to criticize. His opinions stand recorded in the voluminous evidence taken by the Cambridgeshire, a south midland county of numerous bodies appointed to inquire into the condition Lngland bounded on the E. by Norfolk and Suffolk, on of the army. They contain much sound common-sense, the S. by Essex and Hertford, on the W. by Bedford, and they show a strong attachment to the old regimental Huntingdon, and Northampton, and on the N. by Lincoln. system, and a natural dread that esprit de corps might Area and Population.—In 1891 the area of the ancient (geograsuffer from innovations. Throughout the period of change, plucaf) county was 049,749 acres, and the population 188,961, of H.R.H., while protesting, invariably accepted and loyally whom 92,513 were males, and 96,448 females, an increase of 3367 since 1881 (185,594), or an increase of 1’8 per cent., as endeavoured to carry out the measures on which the Govern- persons compared with a decrease of 0'7 per cent, (namely 1312 persons) in ment decided. In a memorandum addressed to Mr Childers the period 1871-81. In 1891 there were 0'34 persons to an acre, in 1880 he defined his attitude as follows: — “Should and 2 91 acres to a person. In the same year the area of the county was 565,737 acres, and the population 196,269, it appear, however, that for reasons of state policy it is registration of whom 96,219 were males, and 100,050 females; in 1881 the necessary that the contemplated changes should be made, I registration county contained 191,289 inhabitants (94,002 males, am prepared to carry them out to the best of my ability.” , q’ V In 1901 population of the ancient county was of thethebirth-rate, death-rate, and illegitimacyThis attitude H.R.H. consistently maintained, and while 190,687. Particulars his training and associations led him to deprecate changes rate, and the number of persons married per 1000 inhabitants are the need for which was not apparent to him, his military given in the subjoined table :— judgment was sometimes indisputably correct. This was 1871-80. 1881-90. 1887-97. 1898. notably the case in regard to the ill-advised reduction of Birth-rate . 32-3 29-3 27-2 25-4 the artillery carried out by Mr. Stanhope. Under the Death-rate . 18-8 17-3 16-6 15-6 Order in Council of February 1888, the whole responsiIllegitimacy-rate . 57 54 51 48 bility for military duties of every kind was for the first Marriage-rate 13-0 12-8 13-4 14-1 time centred upon the Commander-in-Chief. This, as In 189]. the county contained 494 persons of Scottish birth, 433 pointed out by Lord Hartington’s commission in 1890, Irish buth, and 260 foreigners. At the same date there were involved “an excessive centralization ” which “must ol 174 blind persons, 80 deaf and dumb, and 664 insane. necessarily tend to weaken the sense of responsibility of Administration. The ancient county is for parliamentary purthe other heads of departments, and thus to diminish poses divided into three divisions (Northern or Wisbech, Western their efficiency.” The duke of Cambridge, whose exalted or Chesterton, and Eastern or Newmarket), and embraces also the borough of Cambridge, each returning one member. position entailed many duties apart from those strictly parliamentary Ihe University of Cambridge also returns two members. Adminisappertaining to a Commander-in-Chief, could not give tratively the ancient county embraces the two counties of Campersonal attention to the vast range of matters for which bridge and the Isle of Ely. There are two municipal boroughs, he was made nominally responsible. On the other hand, Cambridge and Wisbech ; courts of quarter sessions at Cambridge Ely; and ten petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of the adjutant-general, as “ chief staff officer,” could act in and Cambridge and Wisbech have each a separate commission of the his name, and the Secretary of State could obtain military peace; and the University of Cambridge exercises disciplinary advice given behind his back by officials charged with no jurisdiction over its own members. The two administrative direct responsibility. The effect was to place the duke in counties contain together 172 entire civil parishes and parts of a somewhat false position in the eyes of the Army and of 4 others. The ancient county contains 181 entire ecclesiastical or districts, with parts of 12 others, most of them in the country, while power accumulated in the hands of parishes djoces0 of Ely. Spring assizes are held at Ely, summer assizes this adjutant-general. If the administration of the army at Wisbech. Education.—There is a day training college for schoolmasters at suffered after 1888, this was due to a system which Cambiidge, and in the same town also the New Homerton undeviolated principles. training college for women (see Cambridge). At Ely Throughout his long term of office the duke of Cam- anominational theological college was founded in 1876, the building being opened bridge evinced a warm interest in the welfare of the in 1881. The number of elementary schools in the county, insoldier, and great experience combined with a retentive cluding also the Isle of Ely, on 31st August 1898 was 224, of which memory made him master of military details. While 66 were board schools and 158 voluntary schools, the latter including 146 National Church of England schools. The average attendance quick to condemn deviations from the letter of regu- during the year at the board schools was 8920, and at the volunlations, and accustomed to insist upon great precision in tary schools 18,996. The total school board receipts for the year drill, he was never a martinet, and his natural kindliness ending 29th September 1898 was £23,984. The income under the made him ready to bestow praise. Belonging to the pre- Technical Instruction Act was £467, and under the Agricultural Act £2283. scientific period of the British army, he could not easily Rates Agriculture.—In the period 1875-99 the area under corn crops adapt himself to the new conditions, and in dispensing decreased, as did also the area of the green crops, chiefly miscelpatronage he was somewhat distrustful of originality^ laneous roots and fodder plants. Potatoes, on the other hand, while his position as a member of the royal family tended showed a very considerable increase. Since the year 1875 there to narrow his scope for selection. He was thus inclined has been a very noticeable decline in the number of sheep. The of acres farmed, by tenants was 402,450 in 1889, and to be influenced by considerations of pure seniority, and to number 402,438 in 1899 ; whilst in 1889, 86,202 acres were farmed by their underrate the claims of special ability. The army, how- owners, and in 1899, 87,822 acres. Ihe table immediately following shows the area under the differever, always recognized that in the duke of Cambridge it had a Commander-in-Chief devoted to its interests, and ent kinds of crops at the periods named :— keenly anxious amid many difficulties to promote its wellArea in Under Under Under Bare being. The duke resigned the Commandership-in-Chief Year. CultivaCorn Green Fallow. Permanent tion. Crops. Crops. Grass. 1st November 1895, being succeeded by Lord Wolseley. H.R.H. was colonel of the Scots Fusiliers from 1852 to 1875 483,340 261,327 85,793 16.776 1880 485,482 251,479 82,735 20,422 1861, of the Royal Artillery, 1861, and colonel of the 1885 487,496 241,777 82,102 20,040 90,894 Grenadier Guards since 1862. He was made Ranger of 1890 491,153 238,414 75,494 15,940 108,468 Hyde Park and St James’s Park in 1852, and of Richmond 1895 488,524 222,073 76,526 18.776 117,058 Park m 1857 ; governor of Woolwich Academy in 1862, 1899 490,260 222,434 76,174 12,806 117,722