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CAMEROON 519 and a wet one alternating. Although on the northern where the Faro river joins the Benue. From this point, hemisphere, the seasons show a south equatorial character. on the left bank of the river, the line goes to the point of July to. October are the coldest months, and also bring of 13° E. long, with 10° N. lat., from here to most rain. On the coast the temperature is high all the intersection le or er of Lake Chad, 35 miles east of the meridian of year round, but in the interior it falls as the country rises. Malarial fever is frequent, and even the natives, especially i vi ?Wn The south and Germany east boundaries were hud down byKuka. agreements between and France imported Africans, suffer from it. on 24th December 1885 and 15th March 1894. The Flora and Fauna.—The southern part of the low coast south boundary goes in an almost straight line from is chiefly grass-land, while the river mouths and arms the mouth of the Campo river to the river Sanga. And of the bay are lined with mangrove. The mountainous the eastern boundary runs irregularly north to 10° N. lat. region is covered with primeval forest, in which timber and thence eastwards to the Shari river, which it follows and valuable woods for cabinet-making are plentiful. to Rake Chad. The protectorate measures about 191,130 Most important are the Elaeis guineensis, Sterculia acumi- square miles, and is estimated to have 3,500,000 inhabitnata, and the wild coffee-tree. On Cameroon peak the ants. In 1899 there were 425 whites, of whom 348 were forest ascends to 8000 feet: above it is grass-land. ToGerman and 36 English. The principal town is Cameroon • wards the east the forest gradually grows thinner, assumes and Buea, Victoria, Bibundi, Batanga, and Campo are a park-like appearance, and disappears, and wide grass important trading stations; Aquatown and Belltown are uplands take its place. Animals of all kinds are plentiful, the principal native settlements. including the great pachyderms and carnivora. The latterAdministration.—Cameroon is divided into three disprey on the various kinds of antelopes which swarm on the grass-lands, and two kinds of buffaloes are found in tricts, each with an administrative official, subordinate to ideLandeshauptmann or commissioner. The forces consist the forests, which are the home of the gorilla and chim- of 3^ Germans and 554 natives, who are distributed on a panzee. Large rodents, like the porcupine and cane rat number of stations in the interior. There are two courts are frequent. Of birds there are 316 species, and several of law and a court of arbitration for native officers. of venomous snakes. Education. The Bantu are Pagans, the Sudanese Ethnology.—The north of Cameroon is inhabited by Sudan negroes, the south by Bantus. The former only Mahommedans. There are four missionary societies recently came from the north and north-east, gradually (American Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Baptist, and Protestant). There are several well-attended schools, and driving the Bantu before them. They are a fine race it is a hopeful sign that the natives eagerly desire their probably of Hamitic origin; they brought horses and children to learn to read and write. There are the horned cattle with them, which were unknown in these regions until then, and they founded well-organized states Government schools with 500 pupils, while the missionary like that of Adamawa, of which Yola is the capital. The schools are attended by 5000 pupils. Finance.—The revenue for 1898-99 was 1,251,387 Chief, or Emir, who resides here, is nominally a subject marks, including imperial grant in aid. The budget of the so-called Emperor of Sokoto, but exercises rather revenue for 1899-1900 (including imperial contribution) independent authority over the people under his rule. and expenditure was 1,713,000 marks; the imperial conHe has a strong military force, consisting chiefly of welltribution for 1900-01 is 1,197,700 marks. There are the mounted cavalry. In the lower parts of the country, in the vicinity of the rivers Benue, Faro, and Mao Kebbi, the ordinary export and import taxes, and various other dues. Shipping.—There is regular steamship communication people, who are good agriculturists, cultivate extensive fields on the hills, which, north of the river, form discon- between Hamburg and Cameroon. The Woerman line nected ranges; while south of it they represent the slope steamers leave Hamburg monthly, and call at most of the of the great central African plateau, and stock-raising ports of the protectorate. The African Steamship Comforms the chief pursuit of the inhabitants. Hand in band pany’s and the British and African Steam Navigation with the labours of the field a considerable industry is Company’s steamers also call once a month. In 1898-99 carried on. . The people forge their own arms, and manu- 66 vessels of 81,891 tons called at the ports. Post and Telegraph.—There is no railway. Roads are facture their own stuffs for clothing out of the native being built. On the rivers which run into the cotton. Common villages are built in the Sudanese zeriba gradually bay, small steam-launches ply, and communication with style, surrounded with thorn fences; more important the Government stations in the interior is kept up places are enclosed by a well-built wall and strongly through native runners. Mails are carried by German fortified. Being of warlike disposition, the people often and British steamers three times a month. The protecwage war with their neighbours and also amongst themselves. ^The Bantu negroes inhabit the country south of torate belongs to the Postal Union, and the cable is about 7° of N. lat.; they are active traders, who well connected with the British Telegraph Station at Bonny on the Niger. understand how to keep the intertribal barter entirely in Production. — Cameroon is rich in natural products; heir own hands. They build square houses, and are ruled by independent chiefs, but in no case has an attempt ivory is among the export articles, of which the chief are at political organization been observed amongst them palm-oil, palm kernels, and cocoa. Rubber is collected hough they quickly adapt themselves to civilization! from the Landolphia and various species of Ficus. Among the Duallas a curious system of drum signals is Copal, copra, Calabar beans, and kola - nuts are exported in large quantities. There are several kinds of noteworthy. grained wood, amongst which a very dark ebony Area and Population. — The western boundary of finely is specially remarkable. Cotton, indigo, and various Cameroon was laid down in an agreement between Germany and Great Britain on 15th November 1893, and fibres of plants deserve notice. The natives grow several runs as follows :—From the mouth of the Rio del Rey to kinds of bananas, yams and batatas, maize, pea - nuts, e rapids of the Old Calabar or Cross river under 9° 8' sugar-cane, sorghum, and pepper. Valuable minerals E. long. Thence in a straight line towards Yola, as far have not yet been found in paying quantities, though as the confines of that township. This, in the east, forms signs of gold have been discovered. Iron is smelted by part of a circle, of which the radius is a line drawn from the natives, who, especially amongst the Sudanese, are the centre of the town to a spot fully 3 miles west of very clever smiths, and manufacture fine lance- and arrowheads, knives and swords, and also hoes. Smithwork is