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CAMIL1NG — CAMPANOLOGY

though it cannot be affirmed that the malarial about the only useful form of existing industry. The success, Campagna is anything like healthy yet. Its bare, treeless, natives round the bay are clever carvers of wood, and sun-browned expanses are still given over to herds of oxen make highly ornamental figure-heads for their canoes, horses, sheep (from October to June), and buffaloes; but which also sometimes show very fine workmanship. In some fruit and wine are produced. The regulation of the the interior the people use the wild-growing cotton and rivers, more especially of the Tiber, is probably the most fibres of plants to manufacture coarse drapery and plait- efficient method for coping with the problem. Since 1884 work In 1898-99 the imports were valued at 10,638,955 Italian Government have been systematically enclosing, marks, and exports at 5,145,822 marks. Of the exports, the pumping dry, and generally draining the marshes of the palm-oil was valued at 893,361 marks; palm kernels, 1,365,608 marks ; gum, 1,928,080 marks ; ivory, 598,470 Agro Romano, that is, the tracts around Ostia; the Isola Sacra, at the mouth of the Tiber; and Maccarese. Of the marks ; cocoa, 813,115 marks*. _ Development.—Of old Cameroon and the neighbour- whole of the Campagna less than one-tenth comes annually under the plough. As regards the Pontine Marshes, the ing coast were known as the Oil Coast, and trading worst district of all, in the south, the government drainage settlements were established at an early period. The schemes have so far reclaimed them that they are now in trade, however, was always confined to the coast, because great part adapted for pasturage, or are even cultivated. the Dualla and other tribes had become recognized The evil in this tract arises chiefly from the insignificant intermediaries between the coast factories and the slope of the ground, so that the surface-waters are unable tribes in the interior, whither they allowed no strange to find their way readily to the sea. trader to proceed. They took a quantity of goods on See Field-Marshal Count Moltke’s Wanderbuch (6th ed., Berlin, trust, visited the tribes in the forest, and bartered lor 1892). ivory, rubber, and other produce. This method had Campania, a territorial division of Italy, borderbecome so universal, that it was called the trust system, under which name, though in a safer form, it still exists. ing on the Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean) Sea, both N. It hampered the coast trade seriously, and had to be and S. of Naples, and embracing the provinces of abolished before it was possible to open up the interior Avellino, Benevento, Caserta, Naples, and Salerno, with to settlers and traders. With the utmost difficulty, and an area of 6289 sq. miles, and a population (1881), not without bloodshed, this barrier was broken down, and 2 896 577 ; (1901), 3,142,378. The Campania proper, imdirect communication with the higher parts of the country mediately N. of Naples, is one of the most fertile as well established, and traders from the interior induced to visit as one of the most densely-peopled regions in the world. the coast. The great labour question came next. In The principal products are wheat, maize, olives, wine, order to lay out plantations, workers had to be brought oranges, lemons, chestnuts, tobacco, potatoes, hemp, beans, from the interior, for the coast tribes will only trade, and and pease. Sulphur is mined. The coast is studded with not work. But the plantations have proved a success, towns and villages {e.g., Naples, Castellamare, Amalfi, and though coffee, tobacco, ginger, and other plants thrive Sorrento, Barra, San Giorgio, Resina, Cava dei Tirreni, die.), well, the best article seems to be cocoa, of which more which are much visited for sea-bathing in summer and as than half a million trees have been planted, which yield health resorts in winter. The modern history is generally coincident with the history of Naples. yearly large quantities of excellent cocoa. Authorities.—E. Zintgraph. Nord Kamerun, Berlin, 1895.— Campanology (from late Lat. campana, a F AVohltmann. Dcr Plantagenbau in Kamerun und seine Zu- bell) in its widest sense, includes the history of bells and Icunft, Berlin, 1896.—Fr. Plehn. Die Kamerunkustc, Studun their uses, i.e., bell-lore ; the scientific construction of bells zur Klimatologie, Physiologie, und Pathologic in den Tropen, Berlin, i e. bell-founding and tuning; and the science and art o 1898. (J- V0N p-) beil-ringing. The two former of these heads are treated Cam 1 ling, a town of 23,000 inhabitants, in the under “Bell” {Encyclopcedia Britannica, ninth edition), northern part of the province of Tarlac, Luzon, Philipand the present article will deal mainly with the third and pine Islands, on a branch of the river Agno. Its products most commonly accepted meaning of the term, viz., the are rice, Indian corn, sugar, and indigo. Fine timber science and art of change-ringing as practised upon church grows in the vicinity. The principal language is lan- bells or hand bells. gasinan. 1. When a given number of bells are rung over and Gammarata, a commune of the province of over again in the same order, from the highest note, or Girgenti, Sicily, Italy, 28 miles N. from Girgenti by the “treble,” to the lowest,or “tenor”—1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Chaage. railway to Palermo. It lies at the N.E. foot of Mount 0) 7—they are said to be rung in “ rounds.” ringing; Cammarata (5181 feet), one of the loftiest summits m “Changes” are variations of this order e.g., p Sicily. It has mines of rock-salt and sulphur springs, with 213547 6, 2314567; and “ changeringing” is the art of ringing bells in “changes,” so that a bath-house. Population, about 6500. Campagna di Roma, in the wider sense, a different “change” or rearrangement of order is proat each pull of the bell-ropes, until, without any means the plains which stretch around the city of Pome, duced repetition of the same change, the bells come back into and in the more restricted sense, the coast-belt which “ rounds.” The general principle of all methods of changeextends from Civitavecchia to Terracina. By action of rimdngis that each bell, after striking in the first place, or the Italian parliament in 1882, 1886, and 1893, great “lead,” works gradually “up” to the last place, or behind efforts have been made to cure the waterlogged condition and “ down ” again to the first, and that no bell ever shifts of the marshy grounds. The methods employed have been more than one place in each change. Thus the ringer o three—(i.) the cutting of drainage channels and clearing any bell knows that whatever his position m one cliange, the marshes by pumping, the method principally employed ; his place in the next will be either the same, or the place (ii ) the system of warping, i.e. directing a river so that it before, or the place after. He does not have to learn may deposit its sedimentary matter in the lower-lying by heart the different changes or variations of order, noi parts, thus levelling them up and consolidating them and need he, unless he is the “conductor, know t e then leading the water away again by drainage; (m.) the order of any one change. He has to bear m mind, hrsfi planting of firs and eucalyptus trees, e.g., at Tre Fontane which way his bell is working, viz., whether up and elsewhere. These efforts have not been without