Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/575

This page needs to be proofread.

CAMPOBASSO- -CAMPU El Personalismo (1855), Lo Absoluto (1865), and El Ideismo (1883). These studies are chiefly valuable as embodying fragments of self-revelation, and as having led to the composition of those doloras, humoradas, and pequeiios poemas, which the poet’s admirers consider as a new poetic species. The first collection of Doloras was printed in 1846, and from that date onwards new specimens have been added to each succeeding edition. It is difficult to define a doloi'a. One critic has described it as a didactic, symbolic stanza which combines the lightness and grace of the epigram, the melancholy of the endecha, the concise narrative of the ballad, and the philosophic intention of the apologue. The poet himself declares that a dolora is a dramatic humorada, and that a pequeno poema is a dolora on a larger scale. These definitions are unsatisfactory. The humoristic, philosophic epigram is an ancient poetic form to which Campoamor has given a new name; his invention goes no farther. It cannot be denied that in the Doloras Campoamor’s special gifts of irony, grace, and pathos find their best expression. Taking a commonplace theme, he will render in four, eight, or twelve lines a perfect miniature of condensed emotion. By his choice of a vehicle he has avoided the fatal facility and copiousness which have led many Spanish poets to destruction. It has pleased him to affect a vein of melancholy, and this affectation has been reproduced by his followers. Hence he gives the impression of insincerity, of trifling with grave subjects, and of using mysticism as a mask for frivolity. The genuine Campoamor is a poet of the sunniest humour who, under the pretence of teaching morality by satire, is really seeking to utter the gay scepticism of a genial, epicurean nature. His influence has not been altogether for good. His formula is too easily mastered, and to his example is due a perfect plague of doloras and humoradas by very minor poets who have caricatured their model. Campoamor, as he himself has said, does not practise art for art’s sake; he uses art as the medium of ideas, and in ideas his imitators are poor. Campoamor died at Madrid on 12th February 1901. Of late years a deep silence had fallen upon him, and we are in a position to judge him with the impartiality of another generation. The overwhelming bulk of his work will perish; we may even say that it is already dead. His pretensions, or the pretensions put forward in his name, that he has discovered a new poetic genre will be rejected later, as they are rejected now by all competent judges. The title of a philosophic poet will be denied to him. But he will certainly survive, at least in extract, as a distinguished humorist, an expert in epigrammatic and sententious aphorism, an artist of extremely finished execution. (j. f.-k.) Ca.mpOba.SSO, capital of the province of Campobasso, Abruzzi e Molise, Italy, situated amongst the southern Apennines, 52 miles by rail IST. from Benevento. It is famous for its cutlery and arms. Population of town (1881) 14,824, (1901) 15,046; of province (1881) 365,434, (1901) 366,341. Campos, Arsenio Martinez de (18311900), Spanish Marshal, Senator, and Knight of the Golden Fleece, was born at Segovia on 14th December 1831. He entered the staff college, graduated as a lieutenant in 1852, and for some years was attached to the college as an assistant professor. He took part in the Morocco campaign of 1859-60, and distinguished himself in sixteen fights, obtaining the Cross of San Fernando, and the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He then returned to the staff college as a professor. Afterwards he joined the expedition to Mexico under Prim. In 1869 he was sent to Cuba, where he was promoted to the rank of general in 1872. On his return



to the Peninsula, the Federal Republican Government in 1873 confided to General Campos several high commands, in which he again distinguished himself against the Cantonal Republicans and the Carlists. About that time he began to conspire with other partisans of the Alfonsist branch of the Bourbons, with a view to restore the son of Queen Isabella. Though he made no secret of his designs, Marshal Serrano, in 1874, appointed him to the command of a division which took part in the relief of Bilbao on 2nd May of that year, and in the operations around Estella in June. On both occasions General Campos tried in vain to induce the other commanders then and there to proclaim Alfonso XII., but he was rebuked by Marshal Concha at Bilbao, and at Tafalla by General Echague. He then affected to hold aloof, and would have been arrested, had not the Minister of War, Ceballos, answered for his good behaviour, and quartered him in Avila under surveillance. He managed to escape, and after hiding in Madrid, joined General Daban at Sagunto on 29th December 1874, where he proclaimed Alfonso XII. king of Spain. From that date he never ceased to exercise great influence in the politics of the restoration. He was considered as a sort of Supreme Councillor, being consulted by King Alfonso, and later by his widow, the queen-regent, in every important political crisis, and on every international or colonial question, especially when other generals or the army itself became troublesome. He took an important part in the military operations against the Carlists, and in the negotiations with their leaders, which put an end to the civil war in 1876. In the same way he brought about the pacification of Cuba in 1878. On his return from that island he presided over a Conservative Cabinet for a few months, but soon made way for Canovas, whom he ever afterwards treated as the leader of that party. In 1881, with other discontented generals, he assisted Sagasta in getting into office. After the death of King Alfonso, Campos steadily supported the regency of Queen Christina, and held high commands, though declining to take office. In 1893 he was selected to command the Spanish army at Melilla, and went to the court of Morocco to make an advantageous treaty of peace, which averted a war. When the Cuban rising in 1895 assumed a serious aspect, he was sent out by the Conservative Cabinet of Canovas to cope with the rebellion, but he failed in the field, as well as in his efforts to win over the Creoles, chiefly because he was not allowed to give them home rule, as he wanted. Subsequently he remained aloof from politics, and only spoke in the Senate to defend his Cuban administration and army interests. After the war with America, and the loss of the colonies in 1899, when Senor Silvela formed a new Conservative party and Cabinet, the old marshal accepted the presidency of the Senate, though his health was failing fast. He held that post up to the time of his death in 1900, during the summer recess, at Zarauz, a village on the coast of the Basque province of Guipuzcoa, where he was buried, very modestly, at his own request. His death was generally considered a great loss for the monarchy and for the Conservative party, and events soon proved this to be correct, as within a month the divisions in the party and the Cabinet brought about the fall of Silvela on the one hand, and the reappearance of Castilian militarism with Generals Weyler and Linares on the other. (a. e. h.) Campu Lungf, a town in Rumania, chief town of the district of Muscel, pleasantly situated on the right bank of the river Oltu. The purity of the air and the picturesqueness of the surroundings have made it a popular summer resort. It contains twenty-four churches.