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now to be found in most English contracts of carriage, and contracts of insurance, to these rules, as intended to govern the adjustment of G. A. between the parties ; with the result that (so far as the rules cover the ground) adjustments do not depend upon the law of the place of destination, and so do not vary according to the destination, or the place at which the voyage may happen to be broken up, as used formerly to be the case. The rules are as follows :— Rule I.—Jettison of Deck Cargo. No jettison of deck cargo shall be made good as G. A. Every structure not built in with the frame of the vessel shall he considered to be a part of the deck of the vessel. Rule II. Damage by Jettison and Sacrifice for the Common Safety. Avellino, capital of the province of Avellino, CamDamage done to a ship and cargo, or either of them, by or in pania, Italy, 59 miles by rail E.N.E. from Naples. On consequence of a sacrifice made for the common safety, and by Monte Yergine, at the foot of which the town stands, is water which goes down a ship’s hatches opened, or other opening the monastery (1119) of Monte Vergine, which is visited made for the purpose of making a jettison for the common safety at Whitsuntide and every 7th and 8th September by shall be made good as G. A. Rule III.—Extinguishing Fire on Shipboard. nearly 80,000 pilgrims, the attraction being a wonderDamage done to a ship and cargo, or either of them, by water or working image of the Virgin. At Avellino an ancient otherwise, including damage by beaching or scuttling a burning necropolis was discovered in 1898. There are schools of ship, in extinguishing a fire on board the ship, shall be made good viticulture and the industrial arts. Population of town as G. A. • except that no compensation shall be made for damage to such' portions of the ship and bulk cargo, or to such separate (1901), 23,790; of province (1901), 402,898. packages of cargo, as have been on fire. Rule IV.—Cutting away Wreck. AvercLgC-—Some considerable changes in relation Loss or damage caused by cutting away the wreck or remains of to General Average have to be noted since the appearance or of other things which have previously been carried away of the article on this subject in the ninth edition of this spars, by sea-peril, shall not be made good as G. A. work. The difficulty, which then seemed nearly inRule Y.—Voluntary Stranding. superable, of bringing together the rules in force in the When a ship is intentionally run on shore, and the circumstances several maritime countries has been to a large extent are such that if that course were not adopted she would inevitably overcome—not by legislation, but by framing a set of sink, or drive on shore or on rocks, no loss or damage caused to rules covering the principal points of difference in such the ship, cargo, and freight, or any of them, by such intentional on shore, shall be made good as G. A. But in all other a manner as to satisfy, on the whole, those who are prac- running where a ship is intentionally run on shore for the common tically concerned, and to lead them to adopt these rules cases safety, the consequent loss or damage shall be allowed as G. A. in their contracts of affreightment and contracts of insurRule VI.—Carrying Press of Sail—Damage to or Loss ance. The honour of the achievement belongs to a small of Sails. , number of men who recognized the need of Damage to or loss of sails and spars, or either of them, caused by TeiZk! uniformity. The work began in May 1860res1 at forcing a ship off the ground or by driving her higher up the Antwerp a congress held at Glasgow, under the P ' ground, for the common safety, shall be made good as G. A. , but Rules. dency of Lord Brougham, assisted by Lord where a ship is afloat, no loss or damage caused to the ship, cargo, freight, or any of them, by carrying a press of sail, shall be Neaves Further congresses were held in London (1862), and made good as G. A. and at* York (1864), when a body of rules known as the Rule VII.—Damage to Engines in Refloating a Ship. “ York Rules ” was agreed to. There the matter stood, Damage caused to machinery and boilers of a ship which is until it was taken up by the “ Association for the Reform ashore and in a position of peril, in endeavouring to refloat, shall and Codification of the Law of Nations” at conferences be allowed in G. A., when shown to have arisen from an actual held at the Hague (1875), Bremen (1876) and Antwerp intention to float the ship for the common safety at the risk of (1877). Some changes were made in the “ ork Rules , such damage. of Lightening a Ship when Ashore, and so altered, the body of rules was adopted at the last- Rule VIII.—Expenses and Consequent Damage. named conference, and was styled the “ York and Antwerp When a ship is ashore, and, in order to fload her, cargo, bunker (or York-Antwerp) Rules.” The value of these rules was coals, and ship’s stores, or any of them are discharged, the extra quickly perceived, and practical use of them followed. cost of lightening, lighter hire, and reshipping (if incurred), and But they proved to be insufficient, or unsatisfactory, on the loss or damage sustained thereby, shall be admitted as G. A. some points; and again, in the autumn of 1890, a conRule IX.—Cargo, Ship’s Materials, and Stores Burnt for Fuel. ference on the subject was held, this time at Liverpool, Cargo, ship’s materials, and stores, or any of them, necessarily by the same Association, under the able. presidency of Dr for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be F. Sieveking, president of the Hanseatic High Court o burnt as G. A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel Appeal at Hamburg. Important changes were then made, admitted had been provided ; but the estimated quantity of coals that would carrying further certain departures from English law, have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship s already apparent in the earlier rules, in favour of views last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged prevailing upon the continent of Europe and m the to the shipowner and credited to the G. A. United States. The new rules were styled the YorkRule X.—Expenses at Port of Refuge, &c. Antwerp Rules, 1890. In practice they quickly displaced (a) When a ship shall have entered a port or place of refuge, or those of 1877 ; and in 1892, at a conference of the same shaU have returned to her port or place of loading, in consequence of accident accident, sacrifice, sac , or other extraordinary common safety, circumstances, the expenses which of Association held at Genoa, it was formally declared that ot the only International Rules of General Average having the TnlX sXort o“ Pla" shall be admitted at G. A. ; and when sanction and authority of the Association were the York- she shall havetailed thence with her original cargo, or a part of it, Antwerp Rules as revised in 1890, and that the original the correspondingg expenses of leaving such port or place, conserules were rescinded. It is this later body of rules which is quent upon sueh entry or return, shall likewise be admitted as now known as the York-Antwerp Rules. Reference is G. A.

name and the principal arm of the Vouga. The industries embrace the preparation of salt, the catching and curing of fish, and the gathering^ of aquatic plants (molico). It was the birthplace of Joao Alfonso, the discoverer, one of the first navigators to visit the fishing ('rounds of Newfoundland. The channel through the bar, which connects the lagoon with the sea, has a maximum depth of 33 ft. Population, 8860. The district of Aveiro is 48 miles long by 30 miles wide, with an area of 1146 sq. miles, and population of 291,526, giving a density of 255 inhabitants to the sq. mile. It contains part of the fine wine district of Bairrada, and is a good grazing region. There are copper and lead mines.