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537 CANADA agriculture] Canada has been called the land of milk and honey. Mill: is offered subventions to those who would provide cold storage wareplentiful, and enters largely into the diet of the people. The houses at various points where these were necessary, and also healthy condition of the cows, the pure air of the country, and the arranged with the owners of ocean steamships to provide cold cleanly habits of the people ensure the wholesome quality of the storage chambers on them by means of mechanical refrigerators. Information is given to farmers regarding the various breeds of milk. There is no export trade in milk, but large quantities are now put up in hermetically sealed tins as condensed milk, for use horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry which have been found in mining camps and on board steamships. The cheese is chiefly of most suitable for different districts, most profitable for keeping, a variety known as “ Canadian Cheddar.” It is essentially a food and best adapted for the various markets to which they or their cheese rather than a mere condiment. 1 Tb of it will furnish as products can be sent. Besides furnishing technical and general much nourishing material as lb of the best beefsteak. The in- information on the carrying on of dairying operations, the Governdustry is largely carried on by co-operative associations of farmers. ment has established and maintained illustration cheese factories Them number of cheese factories and creameries grew and creameries in different places for the purpose of introducing 0aiT J ts. fr° in for theexport year is1891 3649in increameries, the year the best methods of carrying on co-operative dairying in both the produc jggg 1733 Butter nowtomade manufacturing and shipping of butter and cheese. Inspectors are where the milk, cream, and butter are handled by skilled employed to give information regarding the packing of fruit, and makers. The creameries are provided with special cold storage also to see to the enforcement of the Fruit Marks Act, which prorooms, into which the butter is placed on the same day in hibits the marking of fruit with wrong brands and packing in any which it is made. From them it may be carried in refrigerator fraudulent manner. Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of railway cars and in cold storage chambers on steamships to its ultimate destination. For the export trade it is packed in square the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to boxes made of spruce or some other odourless wood. These are the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same lined with parchment paper, and contain each 56 lb net of butter. time to cover the most varied climatic and other conditions which The export trade of butter increased over seven-fold in six years, influence agriculture in Canada. The Central Experimental Farm after cold storage facilities for its safe carriage were arranged for is situated at Ottawa, near the boundary line between Quebec and Ontario, where it serves as an aid to agriculture in these two by the Government. In all settled districts of Canada lying eastward of the Great important provinces. One of the four branch farms has been Lakes and westward of the Rocky Mountains apples of fine placed at iSTappan, Nova Scotia, near the boundary between that quality in flavour, in substance, in colour, and in size province and New Brunswick, where it serves the p traits. can pe grown . an(j jn areas containing hundreds of farmers of the three maritime provinces. A second meataI square miles, pears, peaches, and grapes are grown in quantities in branch experimental farm has been established at farms the open air. The climate is favourable to the growth of small Brandon, in Manitoba ; a third at Indian Head, in fruits, such as plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, currants, Eastern Assiniboia, one of the North-West Territories; and gooseberries, and there are great areas in which cranberries, black- the fourth at Agassiz, in the coast climate of British Columbia. At all these farms experiments are conducted to gain informaberries, a,nd blueberries grow plentifully. Apples and pears are the chief sorts of fruit exported. The high tion as to the best methods of preparing the land for crop, flavour, the crisp, juicy flesh, and the long-keeping qualities of the and of maintaining its fertility, the most useful and profitable Canadian apples are their chief merits. The comparatively tender, crops to grow, and how the various crops grown can be disbut very dainty and highly-flavoured “Fameuse” and “ Graven- posed of to the greatest advantage. To this end experiments stein ” varieties were exhibited in cold storage at the Paris are conducted in the feeding of cattle, sheep, and swine for flesh, Universal Exposition of 1900 during the summer succeeding the the feeding of cows for the production of milk, and of poultry both one in which they were grown. Apples are exported in barrels, for flesh and eggs. Experiments are also conducted to test the and also in boxes containing about one bushel each. Large merits of new or untried varieties of cereals and other field crops, quantities are also evaporated and exported. Establishments for of grasses, forage plants, fruits, vegetables, plants, and trees ; and evaporating fruit are now found in most of the larger apple- samples, particularly of the most promising cereals, are distributed growing districts, and canning factories and jam factories have freely among farmers for trial, so that those which promise to be been established in many parts of Canada, and are conducted with most profitable may be rapidly brought into general cultivation. advantage and profit. In 1899 eight million pounds of evaporated Annual reports and occasional bulletins are published and widely distributed, giving the results of this work. Farmers are invited apples were exported, largely to tropical countries. Wine is made in considerable quantities in the principal vine- to visit these experimental farms, and a large correspondence is growing districts, and in several localities large vineyards have conducted with those interested in agriculture in all parts of the been planted for this purpose. An abundance of cider is also made Dominion, who are encouraged to ask advice and information from the officers of the farms. in all the large apple-growing districts. The governments of the several provinces each have a departHoney is one of the minor food products of Canada. With clover blossoms perfuming the air for hundreds of miles, honey ment of agriculture. In Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia there bees have plenty of pasturage. It is everywhere admitted that are special agricultural schools or colleges for the practical educaCanadian honey for colour, flavour, and substance is unsurpassed. tion of young men in farming ; there are also dairy schools in Maple sugar and syrup are made in those areas of the country most of the provinces, where practical instruction and training are where the maple tree flourishes. The syrup is used chiefly as a given. Among other provincial agencies for imparting informasubstitute for jam or preserved fruits, and the sugar is used in tion there are farmers’ institutes, travelling dairies, country homes for sweetening, for cooking purposes, and the live-stock associations, farmers’, dairymen’s, and fruitmaking of confectionery. During recent years the processes of growers’ associations, and agricultural and horticultural or2an]za_ manufacture have been improved by the introduction of specially societies. These are all maintained or assisted by the tioas aa(j constructed evaporators, and quantities of maple sugar and syrup several provinces. Parts of the proceedings and many e(jucatiollt of the addresses and papers presented at the more imare now available for the export trade. The Department of Agriculture of the Federal Government portant meetings of these associations are published by the renders aid in various ways. Chief among these are the main- provincial governments and distributed free to farmers who desire to have them. There are also annual agricultural exhibia State aid ^enance branches of the public service under ’ the Commissioner of Agriculture and Dairying, and tions of a highly important character, where improvements in the Dominion Experimental Farms. Under the former the connexion with agricultural and horticultural products, live stock, Government promotes the extension of markets for farm products; implements, &c., are shown in competition. The principles of it maintains several officers in the United Kingdom who make agriculture are taught to some extent in the common schools in reports from time to time on the condition in which Canadian most of the provinces. Sir William C. Macdonald of Montreal goods are delivered from the steamships, and also on what they can recently gave a sum of 10,000 dollars to be distributed to boys and learn from importing and distributing merchants regarding the girls on Canadian farms as prizes in a competition in the selecpreferences of the market for different qualities of farm goods and tion of seed grain. The competitors grew seed grain on specially different sorts of packages. Through this branch of the public prepared plots of land, one-quarter of an acre in each plot, service a complete chain of cold storage accommodation between selecting seed each year from these plots to sow on the plot for the various points in Canada and markets in Europe, particularly in succeeding year. They gathered the large well-filled heads from Great Britain, has been arranged. The Government offered a bonus vigorous plants before the grain was cut, after all the conditions of to those owners of creameries who would provide cold storage growth had been observed, and then threshed these heads. By accommodation at them and keep the room in use for a period of screening and hand-picking the large well-developed grain from three years. It also arranged with the various railway companies those selected heads, the seed for next year’s seed grain plot was to run refrigerator cars weekly on the main lines leading to secured. The selecting of seed in this manner was conducted on Montreal and other export points. The food products from over 800 Canadian farms, fairly well distributed throughout the any shippers are received into these cars at the various Dominion, and was of immense benefit to agriculture. Sir railway stations at the usual rates, without any extra William gave a further sum of 225,000 dollars for the improvement . (j. W. R.) charge for the icing or cold storage service. The Government of education at rural schools. S. II. — 68